Mintmaster in Mülheim, a city in Germany, in 1555, appointed as Mintmaster in Deutz on 4 August 1558, also continued striking coins in Mülheim from 1 November 1560. Mintmaster in Neuss, Germany, from 1561 to 1564. He died 14 March 1565. Johan Bitter was born in Holland; the Mülheim Mintmaster Kaspar Fleming was his father in law. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) pp. 24-25, 46; Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Städte Köln und Neuss: 1474-1794 (1926) pp. 47-49.
Roth was responsible for the production of low quality gelders in Dorsten (where Roth was known as Kühte), said to have been struck in the cellar of his house. In 1662, at the request of the Prince-Elector, Roth struck small coin denominations in Recklinghausen, notwithstanding the protestations of the Mayor and Council as Recklinghausen already had its own Mintmaster (Peter Nießmann). Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) pp. 245, 246, 247.
Appointed on 22 March 1463 as Warden in Burg Riehl, since 1888 a part of the city of Cologne in Germany, for the Archbishopric of Cologne. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Cöln 1306-1547 (1913) p. 216.
Goldsmith in Cologne, Germany, in 1553. Tilman Wickerath was appointed Warden of the Cologne Archbishopric on 7 August 1565. He was appointed General Warden early in 1567 following the death of Lorenz Faust, and also Special Warden in Deutz. Wickerath died in office in March 1595. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) pp. 33, 47, 92; Wolfgang Scheffler, Goldschmiede Rheinland-Westfalens - Aachen - Köln (1973) n. 782 p. 446.
Mintmaster in the Archbishopric Cologne during October 1502 to at least 1505, in the Zons Mint, jointly appointed with van Leyden in the Deutz Mint. There is further reference in 1523 to a Johann Gronewalt in a delegation to Nürnberg, described as the Cologne mintmaster; this is assumed to be the same person. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Cöln 1306-1547 (1913) pp. 263, 266, 318.
Mintmaster in Deutz, Germany, in 1693, and in Bonn from 1698 to 1728. Friedrich Wendels, was listed as a Silversmith in 1693, was enrolled as Unverdienter on 5 August 1657. He died on 26 August 1728. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) pp. 338, 427; Wolfgang Scheffler, Goldschmiede Rheinland-Westfalens - Aachen - Köln (1973) n. 1548 pp. 541-542.
Mint warden in Bonn, a city in Germany, around 1762 (there is an undated hand-written application from Broich around this time). He was involved in the minting of both silver and copper coins. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) p. 393.
Jost (first name unknown) was appointed Warden for Deutz, a city in Germany, in 1579, working in collaboration with the Mintmaster Reiner Budels. (It is not known if this was Ernst Jost who in 1580 worked in the foundry of the niederrheinisch-westfälischen Kreise). Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) p. 66.
Mint Official in Deutz, a city in Germany, in 1617 (in 1617 he signed a list of coins struck for the Archbishopric Cologne with "Johann vom Lomgrae, churf. [kurfürstlicher] Wardein". Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) p. 151.
Appointed Mintmaster in Deutz, Germany, in May 1572 (even though he seemed to have been working in this position somewhat earlier), but on 8 October 1578 Budels was arrested and charged for producing under-weight coins. He lost his position soon after. In 1579 Budels was shown as working in collaboration with the Warden Jost. Reiner Budels was the son of the late Lütterich Mintmaster who died during the Lower Rhine - Westaflen Circle Assay Commission of 1566 in Cologne. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) pp. 47, 66.
The Museum of Prehistoric and Early History of Thuringia in Weimar unites a museum with a 1000 m² exhibition space and the Thuringian Provincial Office for the Preservation of Monuments and Archeology under one roof. The collection includes approximately 12,000 coins, mostly archaeological finds from Thuringia. Among them there are 50 Celtic and 500 Roman coins, as well as more than 11,000 coins from the Middle Ages and modern times. These numismatic objects are now being recorded step by step in the project "Cooperative analysis and usage of object data of numismatic collections" (KENOM <http://www.kenom.de/>.
Appointed Mintmaster in Recklinghausen, Germany, on 1 September 1662. Nießmann presented his appointment letter to the Assay Commission in May 1664. It appears that Peter Nießmann was the underage son of the Lünen Mintmaster Reiner Nießmann, and it was the father that carried the responsibility. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) p. 247.
In a contract dated 16 August 1721, the entire Bonn Mint was leased out to the French (or Walloon) speaking Marc-Antoine Garnier and Antoine Lourdet. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) p. 326.
The Coin Cabinet of Göttingen University was founded in 1763. Today, it comprises about 5,900 Greek, 9,600 Roman, 1,000 Byzantine, 4,000 Oriental, 2,100 Medieval and 15,600 Modern Coins, as well as about 1,700 medals, plaques and tokens, as well as 100 lead marks.
The Staatliche Münzsammlung München is the central numismatic collection of Bavaria. It is located in the Munich residence and houses more than 300,000 coins, banknotes, money notes and medals from antiquity to today.
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (German: Franz Joseph I., Hungarian: I. Ferenc József, 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary from 1848 until his death in 1916. From 1 May 1850 until 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation.
The min(s) at the municipality of Rekem, now part of Lanaken, Limburg province, Belgium. It used to be the capital of the County (German: Grafschaft) of Reckheim, which historically formed a part of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle (German: Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis) of the Holy Roman Empire. It was designated a Herrschaft (French: Seigneurie) up to 1620 before being elavated to a County.