The Muzaffarid dynasty (Persian: مظفریان) was a Persian dynasty which came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. At their zenith, they ruled a kingdom comprising Iranian Azerbaijan, Central Persia, and Persian Iraq.
Magistrate in Athens 135/134 BC (issue 30).
Appears for a second time as second magistrate in issue 39 of 126/125 BC. [Thompson (1961) 563].
Lit.: M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (1961) issue 30; C. Habicht, Zu den Münzmagistraten der Silberprägung des Neuen Stils, Chiron 21, 1991, p. 5; Prosopographia Attica 4785.
Samarkand (Tajik: Samarqand Самарқанд; Persian: سمرقند Cyrillic/Russian: Самарканд from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town"), alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, traditionally was the second-largest city inUzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. It is now the nation's third largest, after fast-growing Namangan in the Ferghana Valley. The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road betweenChina and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque(a modern replica) remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood.
Dura-Europos, also spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment 90 metres (300 feet) above the right bank of the Euphrates river. It is located near the village of Salhiyé, in today's Syria. In 113 BC, Parthians conquered the city, and held it, with one brief Roman intermission (114 AD), until 165 AD. Under Parthian rule, it became an important provincial administrative center. The Romans decisively captured Dura-Europos in 165 AD and greatly enlarged it as their easternmost stronghold in Mesopotamia, until it was captured by Sassanians after a siege in 256-7 AD. Its population was deported, and after it was abandoned, it was covered by sand and mud and disappeared from sight.
Antiochia in Margiana (also Merv) was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan. Several cities have existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of culture and politics at a site of major strategic value.
Margiana is a historical region centred on the oasis of Merv and was a minor satrapy within the Achaemenid satrapy of Bactria, and a province within its successors, the Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian empires.
Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire. The Sogdian states, although never politically united, were centred on the main city of Samarkand. Sogdiana lay north of Bactria, east of Khwarezm, and southeast of Kangju between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr Darya), embracing the fertile valley of the Zeravshan (ancient Polytimetus).
Drangiana was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around Hamun Lake, wetlands in endorheic Sistan Basin on the Iran-Afghan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in what is nowadays southwestern region of Afghanistan.
Icarus (Failaka) lies on the island of Icarus/Failaka 20km off the cost of Kuwait City in the Persian Gulf. It was colonized by Alexander the Great between 331 - 324/3 B.C. and called Ikaros after the island in the Aegean Sea.
The two volume type corpus, "Seleucid coins : a comprehensive catalogue. Part 1, Seleucus I through Antiochus III" and "Part 2, Seleucus IV through Antiochus XIII," by Authur Houghton, Catherine Lorber, and Oliver Hoover. It was published jointly by the American Numismatic Society and Classical Numismatic Group in 2008.
Consul suffectus c. AD 64, Consul in AD 70 and 73.
Legatus augusti pro praetore provinciae Syriae from AD 67 to 69. His name appears on coins of the legate series of Antioch.
Lit.: RPC I pp. 629-630; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) pp. 629-630; PIR² L 216.
Legatus augusti pro praetore Ciliciae in AD 201-205, ditto Moesiae inferioris in AD 210-213. His name appears on coins of Markianopolis and Nikopolis.
Lit.: PIR² F 402; B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 140 Nr. 111 (under Septimius Severus and sons, AD 209-212); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) S. 737 s. v. Oulpianos (AD 209-211).
Legatus Augusti pro praetore Moesiae inferioris. His name appears on coins in Marcianopolis under Caracalla, c. AD 211-217. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 140 no. 112 (time of Caracalla’s early reign); PIR² Q 18; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 630 s. v. Kyntilianos (c. AD 211-217).
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Moesia inferior. His name appears on coins in Marcianopolis/Moesia inferior under elagabalus, c. AD 218-222. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 141 no. 118 (under Elagabalus); PIR² S 534; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 848 s. v. Titianus (AD 218-222).
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.
Atropatene was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Procurator equestris. He was Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Moesia inferior under Alexander Severus, c. AD 225-229 AD. His name apppears on coins in Marcianopolis inferior under Severus Alexander, Iulia Mamaea, and Iulia Maesa. he is also labbeled Hegemon on some coins. As praefectus vehiculorum and together with others he dedicated a statue of Roma to the emperor Caracalla. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 143 no. 127 (Um(brius?) Tereventinus, coins with portraits of Severus Alexander and Iulia Maesa, c. 222-226 AD); PIR² V 880 (VM[---] TEREVENTINVS = Modius Tereventinus); PIR² M 671 (Modius Terventinus); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 838 s. v. Terebentios (AD 222-235).
Legatus Augusti pro praetore Moesiae inferioris. Known through epigraphic and numismatic sources. He dedicated a statue to the emperor Gordianus III, and his name appears on coins in Marcianopolis with the portrait of Gordianus III on the obverse, but not with those of Tranquillina. Therefor his term in office seems to have terminated before the Imperial marriage in AD 241. Additionally at some point before AD 238 he is recorded as consul suffectus. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 144 no. 131 (c. AD 239-240); PIR² T 387; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 682 s. v. Menophilos (c. AD 238-244).
Legatus Augusti pro praetore Moesiae inferioris. His name appears on coins in Marcianopolis under Severus Alexander, c. AD 222-226 (with the portraits of Severus Alexander and Iulia Maesa on the obverse). Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 143 no. 126 (c. AD 222-226); PIR² I 308; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 865 s. v. Festus (c. AD 222-235).
Legatus Augusti pro praetore Moesiae inferioris. His name appears on coins in Nicopolis ad Istrum, not before AD 241. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 144 no. 133 (c. AD 241-244); PIR² S 5 (SAB[INIVS more probable than SAB[VCIVS] MODESTVS); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 693 s. v. Modestos (c. AD 238-244).
The Seleucid Dynasty was founded in 312 B.C. by one of Alexander the Great's generals, Seleucid I Nicator, after the empire was split between the Diodochi. The Seleucid Dynasty ruled over much of Alexander's eastern domain, from Anatolia to (at it's greatest extent) Bactria. The dynasty finally collapsed to the rising Roman hegemony in the East in 63 B.C.
The Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria (and probably the surrounding provinces) founded the Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC and became King Diodotus I of Bactria.
Antiochus III the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 187 BC, ruled 222 – 187 BC) was a Seleucid Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
He ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BCE.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (play /ænˈtaɪ.əkəs ɛˈpɪfəniːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής, 'God Manifest'; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175
BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.
Antiochus VII Euergetes ("the Benefactor"), nicknamed Sidetes ("the Sidetan" after Side, a city in Asia Minor where he had once resided), was the king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 138 to 129 BC. After repressing the usurper Tryphon at the beginning of his reign, Antiochus VII consolidated his authority in Syria and Coele Syria before embarking on a grand campaign to restore the eastern territories of the empire that had fallen to the Arsacid Parthians. The king reclaimed Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Media, but was ambushed and killed with the bulk of his army during a Parthian-supported uprising in Media in the winter of 130–129 BC.
Antiochus II Theos ("the God") was the third king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling from 261 to 246 BC. He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC. He was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He successfully fought against Ptolemy II in the Second Syrian War (260–253 BC), expanding his territory in Asia Minor and Thrace.
Antiochus Hierax ("the Hawk") was the younger brother of Seleucus II who was appointed viceroy of Asia Minor during the Third Syrian War (246-241 BC) between Seleucus II and Ptolemy III. In c. 242 BC Hierax proclaimed himself king and began the War of the Brothers (c. 241-236 BC) against Seleucus II. Hierax ultimately lost his kingdom and escaped to Thrace, where he was killed by Galatians in 227 BC.
Achaeus was a Seleucid general under Seleucus III and Antiochus III. He reclaimed much of western Asia Minor for Antiochus III in 223 BC before proclaiming himself king in 220 BC. He was besieged in Sardes before he was captured and executed by Antiochus III in late 214 BC.
The foundation of the Kingdom of Pergamum was laid when Philetaerus took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC
Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor") (satrap, 321–305 BC; king, 305–281 BC) was the founder of the Seleucid Empire. He had served as an infantry commander under Alexander the Great and became chiliarch (i.e. vizier) to Perdiccas at the Settlement of Babylon (323 BC). In 321 BC, after the death of Perdiccas he was appointed satrap (governor) of Babylonia. He was driven out by Antigonus Monophthalmus in 315 BC, but managed to return and hold the satrapy in 312. Seleucus I assumed the royal title in 305 BC and embarked upon a great eastern campaign that created a Seleucid Empire stretching from Babylonia and Syria to the borders of India. He played a pivotal role in the defeat and death of Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus (301 BC). Seleucus I expanded his empire into Asia Minor after defeating and killing Lysimachus, the king of Thrace who had claimed Antigonus' territories in Asia Minor, at the Battle of Corupedium (281 BC). Seleucus I was assassinated later in 281 BC as he advanced to take possession of Thrace.
Seleucus II Callinicus ("Nobly Victorious"), nicknamed Pogon ("the Beard") was the fourth king of the Seleucid Empire. He succeeded his father, Antiochus II in 246 BC and reigned until 225 BC. His reign saw many challenges to the territorial integrity of the empire. The king was ineffective in opposing Ptolemy III during the Third Syrian War (246-241 BC) and suffered invasion and the loss of possessions in Syria, Asia Minor, and Thrace. These problems were compounded by his brother, Antiochus Hierax, who established an independent kingdom in Asia Minor and whom Seleucus II was unable to evict during the disastrous War of the Brothers (c. 241-236 BC). Turning from his failures in the West, in 230-227 BC, Seleucus II marched East to oppose the invading Arsacid Parthians and restore Seleucid authority in the rogue satrapy (province) of Bactria. What limited successes he enjoyed in this endeavor were fleeting. In 225 BC he was thrown from his horse and died from his injuries.
Seleucus IV Philopator ("Father-loving") was the eldest son of Antiochus III and succeeded him as the seventh king of the Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 187 to 175 BC, during which time he formed alliances in Asia Minor and Macedon in order to restore Seleucid influence curtailed by the Peace of Apamea. He was assassinated by his chief minister, Heliodorus, in 175 BC.
Seleucus III Soter ("the Savior"), nicknamed Ceraunus ("the Thunderbolt") was the fifth king of the Seleucid Empire. He was named Alexander at birth but assumed the dynastic name Seleucus when he succeeded his father Seleucus II in 225 BC. He was assassinated in 233 BC while campaigning to regain Asia Minor from Attalus I of Pergamum.
Philetaerus was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamum. In 301 BC, Lysimachus appointed him to guard a treasury of 9,000 talents of silver at Pergamum. Amid the dynastic turmoil in Lysimachus' kingdom in 281 BC, Philetaerus invited Seleucus I to kill his master and take possession of the kingdom. After the deaths of Lysimachus and Seleucus I, he became an increasingly independent dynast. He was a eunuch and had no children of his own, adopting his nephew Eumenes I as his successor.
Diodotus I (285-239 BC) was a Seleucid satrap of Bactria who rebelled after the death of Antiochus II. In c. 255 or 246 BC he proclaimed himself an independent king in Bactria. Much of his reign was spent opposing the invading Parthians under their king, Arsaces I.
Diodotus II (c. 252 BC – c. 223 BC) succeeded his father Diodotus I in 239 BC. An alliance with the Parthians allowed Diodotus II to successfully defend his kingdom against Seleucus II in c. 239 BC, but in c. 223 BC he was killed by Euthydemus (I), a usurping governor of Sogdiana.