Numismatic Description Schema (NUDS)

The Numismatic Description Schema is a codified XML schema based on numismatic database fields proposed by Sebastian Heath and Andrew Meadows. These fields, called the Numismatic Description Standard, are detailed at http://www.greekcoinage.org/nuds.html, and were originally published on Nomisma.org. The NUDS XML schema is based on this field list and Ethan Gruber's preliminary work mapping coins to Encoded Archival Description, which was detailed in a 2009 Computer Applications in Archaeology paper, "Encoded Archival Description for Numismatic Collections." It is also influenced by the structure of TEI and EAC-CPF, common standards in the Digital Humanities, library and archival domains. Ideally, a NUDS record should implement XLink attributes to integrate URIs from external Linked Open Data vocabulary systems, such as concepts defined on Nomisma.org itself. It allows for the optional namespacing of EpiDoc TEI elements for legends and descriptions for more complex tagging of inscriptions and prose.

Resources

  • Schema (stable): http://nomisma.org/nuds.xsd. The current stable version of the NUDS XSD schema is hosted by Nomisma.org at a permanent URI. It can be linked to from NUDS documents for validation.
  • Schema (Github): https://github.com/ewg118/NUDS. All versions are available through Github.

Current Version: 2017a

Table of Contents


Element List

abTop

The anonymous block element is reproduced from TEI and may contain TEI paragraph content namespaced in for greater flexibility in the encoding of prose.

May Contain
TEI macro.paraContent
May Occur Within
description
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

acknowledgmentTop

Any arbitrary <acknowledgment>, such as a donor who provided funds for digitization.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

acquiredFromTop

Person or organization where the object was acquired. The associated date should reflect the acquisition date, as precisely as possible. XLink attributes may be used to link to stable identifiers.

May Contain
mixed [text] and/or description, method, saleCatalog, saleItem, salePrice
May Occur Within
chronitem
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

adminDescTop

The Administrative Description contains information pertaining to provenance, accessioning, deaccessioning, and other administrative metadata. This element should not be used in conceptual records.

May Contain
acknowledgment, appraisal, collection, department, display, identifier, owner, physloc, provenance, repository
May Occur Within
descMeta

agencyCodeTop

The code that represents the institution or service responsible for the creation, maintenance and/or dissemination of the NUDS instance.

May Contain
[m.data.standardRepository]
May Occur Within
maintenanceAgency
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

See maintenanceAgency


agencyNameTop

The name of the institution or service responsible for the creation, maintenance, and/or dissemination of the NUDS instance.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
maintenanceAgency
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See maintenanceAgency


agentTop

The name of the agent responsible for the <maintenanceEvent>.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
maintenanceEvent
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See maintenanceHistory


agentTypeTop

The type of agent responsible for modifying the NUDS record: "human" or "machine".

May Contain
"human" or "machine"
May Occur Within
maintenanceEvent
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

See maintenanceHistory


analysisTypeTop

Type of <chemicalAnalysis>. It is recommended to implement terms from a controlled list.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
chemicalAnalysis
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

appraisalTop

The <appraisal> of the object, which must include <date> and <appraiser>, as well as a choice between a textual <description> and a numeric <value>.

May Contain
appraiser, date, description, value
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

appraiserTop

The individual or organization responsible for issuing an appraisal.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
appraisal
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

authorityTop

A container element for entities related to authorizing or issuing the object or type.

May Contain
corpname, famname, persname
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc

axisTop

Axis is the orientation of the obverse to the reverse. This element accepts any string (to accommodate clock values, such as "6:00", but it is recommended to input an integer value, as only numeric values are indexed into Nomisma for analysis.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
physDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
clock: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

<axis clock="o'clock">6</axis>

channelOrientationTop

Definition:

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
physDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
clock: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

chemicalAnalysisTop

Container element for chemical analyses of an object. It requires <analysisType>, <date> of analysis, and the <components> container.

May Contain
analysisType, components, date, description
May Occur Within
physDesc

chronitemTop

Chronological Item: an individual ownership event within a chain of an object's provenance. It must include a date or date range and the previous collection.

May Contain
acquiredFrom, date, dateRange, previousColl
May Occur Within
chronlist
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

chronlistTop

Chronological List of ownership events. Includes 1 or more <chronitem> elements.

May Contain
chronitem
May Occur Within
provenance
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

collectionTop

The collection to which an object belongs--where the object is physically located. It should link to a standard URI via XLink attributes. The <collection> may be the same as the <maintenanceAgency> in the NUDS <control>, although it might be different if one institution is reponsible for the maintenance of the digital information for another institution that physically houses the object. For example, the University of Virginia Library is the <maintenanceAgency> for coins that physically reside in the Fralin Museum at the University of Virginia.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

completenessTop

Completeness. Recommended to link to a controlled list via XLink attributes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
conservationState, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

componentTop

Individual component of a <chemicalAnalysis>. A @percentage attribute is required. The total percentages should not exceed 100.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
components
Attributes
certainty: optional
percentage: required
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

componentsTop

Container of components of a <chemicalAnalysis>. There may be more than one component, each required a @percentage decimal value.

May Contain
component
May Occur Within
chemicalAnalysis
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

conditionTop

Condition. Recommended to link to a controlled list via XLink attributes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
conservationState, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

conservationStateTop

The <conservationState> is a container element for the physical states of conservation of an object. The Conservation State elements may appear directly within or it may include <obverse> and/or <reverse> for greater specificity.

May Contain
completeness, condition, grade, obverse, reverse, secondaryTreatment, wear
May Occur Within
physDesc

controlTop

The area of the instance that contains control information about its identity, creation, maintenance, status, and the rules and authorities used in the composition of the description. It must contain a unique identifier for the instance within the <recordId> element and other associated identifiers may be given in <otherRecordId>. There must be a description of the agency responsible for its creation and maintenance in <maintenanceAgency> as well as statements about its current drafting status in <maintenanceStatus> and the creation, maintenance, and disposition of the instance in <maintenanceHistory>. The <control> is based on EAC-CPF.

May Contain
maintenanceAgency, maintenanceHistory, maintenanceStatus, otherRecordId, publicationStatus, recordId, rightsStmt, semanticDeclaration
May Occur Within
nuds
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

copyrightHolderTop

The holder of the copyright of the object, which may be different from the publishing agency defined in the <maintenanceAgency> in the <control>.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
rightsStmt
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See rightsStmt


corpnameTop

A corporate name associated with a record, typically under <authority>. It should link to a URI in Nomisma or another concept scheme. The role of this person should be expressed by @xlink:role. In Numishare, typical roles are 'issuer', 'authority', and 'state'.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
authority
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

countermarkTop

A <countermark> is a physical characteristic, separated from typological description. It may optionally contain <obverse> or <reverse> The mark must be encoded in the <symbol> element, which may be included directly within <countermark> when the side of the coin cannot be ascertained, or within the obverse or reverse.

May Contain
obverse, reverse
May Occur Within
physDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

dateTop

A single date. It should include the @standardDate attribute to encode normalized dates according to xs datatypes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
appraisal, chemicalAnalysis, chronitem, dateOnObject, dateSet, dateSet, deposit, discovery, obverse, reverse, rightsStmt, typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
notAfter: optional
notBefore: optional
precision: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
standardDate: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

dateOnObjectTop

A literal transcription of the <date> or <dateRange> on an object. An <era> may be included.

May Contain
date, dateRange, era
May Occur Within
physDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

dateRangeTop

A date range that must include a beginning and end date.

May Contain
fromDate, toDate
May Occur Within
chronitem, dateOnObject, dateSet, dateSet, deposit, discovery, obverse, reverse, typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
precision: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

dateSetTop

A date set includes an unbounded number of <date> or <dateRange> combinations.

May Contain
date, date, dateRange, dateRange
May Occur Within
[root element]
Attributes
localType: optional
precision: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

denominationTop

The <denomination>, usually defined by a Nomisma URI by means of XLink attributes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

departmentTop

The administrative department to which an object belongs, e.g., "Greek" or "Islamic." Departments can vary widely by institution. XLink attributes may be used to link to Fields of Numismatics as defined by Nomisma.org.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

<department>Roman</department>

depositTop

Includes the <date> or <dateRange> of the deposit of the coin. This should be expanded to include further context.

May Contain
date, dateRange
May Occur Within
findspotDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

descMetaTop

The Descriptive Metadata element is one of two required elements within <nuds>. It is the container for all descriptive metadata containers for an object or typology. <typeDesc> is the only required child element.

May Contain
adminDesc, descriptionSet, findspotDesc, noteSet, physDesc, refDesc, subjectSet, title, typeDesc, undertypeDesc
May Occur Within
nuds
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

<descMeta>
    <typeDesc>
        <objectType xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="http://nomisma.org/id/coin">Coin</objectType>
    </typeDesc>
    <physDesc>
        <axis>6</axis>
        <measurementsSet>
            <weight units="g">4.55</weight>
        </measurementsSet>
    </physDesc>
</descMeta>

descriptionTop

A generic element intended to contain a textual description. It may contain just free-text or an unbounded number of <ab> (anonymous block) elements to facilitate greater flexibility in prose encoding with TEI paragraph content namespaced in.

May Contain
mixed [text] and/or ab
May Occur Within
acquiredFrom, appraisal, chemicalAnalysis, descriptionSet, edge, obverse, previousColl, provenance, reverse, type
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

descriptionSetTop

Description Set is a container for an unliminted number of <description> elements in order to provide descriptive prose about an object, such as historical or artistic context.

May Contain
description
May Occur Within
descMeta

Example

<descriptionSet>
        <description xml:lang="en">This is description about a coin.</description>
</descriptionSet>

diameterTop

Diameter (in decimal numbers) of a round object. Units and precision may be included as attributes. The <diameter> should not be used in conjunction with <height> and <width>.

May Contain
[xs:decimal]
May Occur Within
measurementsSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

dieTop

The indentifier for a die relating to obverse or reverse type. Use XLink attributes to link to dies defined in thesaurus systems.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
state: required
xml:id: optional

digRepTop

The Digital Representations element should only be applied for physical objects. The contents of this element are not validated. Typically, <digRep> includes METS elements namespaced in for encoding obverse and reverse images in various sizes.

May Contain
May Occur Within
nuds
Attributes
xml:id: optional

discoveryTop

Includes the <date> or <dateRange> of the discovery of the coin. This should be expanded to include further context.

May Contain
date, dateRange
May Occur Within
findspotDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

displayTop

Captures information about the current display of the object. A <label> may optionally be included.

May Contain
institution, label, location
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
onDisplay: required
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

dispositionTop

A free text description detailing the disposition of the object once discovered. More detailed provenance is captured in the <adminDesc>.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
findspotDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

edgeTop

A container element for metadata about the edge, including textual <description>, <type>, and <legend>.

May Contain
description, legend, type
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc

eraTop

The era by which a <dateOnObject> is attributed.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
dateOnObject
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

eventDateTimeTop

The date and time of the <maintenanceEvent>.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
maintenanceEvent
Attributes
standardDateTime: required
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See maintenanceHistory


eventDescriptionTop

The description of a maintenance event in the life of the NUDS instance.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
maintenanceEvent
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See maintenanceHistory


eventTypeTop

The type of maintenance event for the NUDS instance. On first creation, the event type would be "created". A "derived" event type is available to indicate that the record was derived from another descriptive system, e.g., to generate a coin type record from a curated physical coin record. If revisions are made to an existing NUDS instance, the event type would be "revised".

May Contain
"cancelled" or "created" or "deleted" or "derived" or "revised" or "updated"
May Occur Within
maintenanceEvent
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

See maintenanceHistory


famnameTop

A family (dynasty) name associated with a record, typically under <authority>. It should link to a URI in Nomisma or another concept scheme.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
authority
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

findspotTop

The <findspot> element may contain a <geogname> that links to a gazetteer such as Geonames.org.

May Contain
geogname
May Occur Within
findspotDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

findspotDescTop

May Contain
deposit, discovery, disposition, findspot
May Occur Within
descMeta
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

fromDateTop

Beginning date of a range. It should include the @standardDate attribute to encode normalized dates according to xs datatypes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
dateRange
Attributes
notAfter: optional
notBefore: optional
precision: optional
standardDate: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

geognameTop

A geographic name associated with a record, under <geographic>. It should link to a URI in Nomisma or another concept scheme. The role of this place should be expressed by @xlink:role. In Numishare, typical roles are 'mint' and 'region'. Typically, the region can be derived from Nomisma itself.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
findspot, geographic
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

geographicTop

A container element for places related to minting coinage.

May Contain
geogname
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc

gradeTop

Grade. Recommended to link to a controlled list via XLink attributes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
conservationState, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

heightTop

The <height> should be used with <width> and not <diameter>. If viewing the obverse, the height is the y-axis measurement in decimal numbers.

May Contain
[xs:decimal]
May Occur Within
measurementsSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

identifierTop

The <identifier> is the holding repository's internal identification number--typically an accession number. If the <identifier> may be expressed in a way that is valid for a URI, it is recommended that this number be simultaneously used as the <recordId> in the <control> of the NUDS record.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

institutionTop

The institution that is currently displaying an object (if different than the home collection).

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
display
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

labelTop

The label associated with the <display>.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
display
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

legendTop

The <legend> is a mixed content element. Typically, the legend will be a literal transcription, and the @scriptCode attribute may be used to designate the script. Alternatively, one or more <tei:div> elements may be namespaced in for a greater degree of transcriptive accuracy, following the EpiDoc schema.

May Contain
mixed [text] and/or tei:div
May Occur Within
edge, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
scriptCode: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

licenseTop

A statement of the metadata license. It is recommended to link to a license provided by Creative Commons or the Open Data Commons.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
rightsStmt
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See rightsStmt


locationTop

The physical location where the object is put on display, e.g., a room or gallery.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
display
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

maintenanceAgencyTop

The institution or service responsible for the creation, maintenance, and/or dissemination of the NUDS instance. This must include the <agencyName> element and it is recommended to include the optional <agencyCode> and / or <otherAgencyCode> elements as well to unambiguously identify the institution or service.

May Contain
agencyCode, agencyName, otherAgencyCode
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

<maintenanceAgency>
    <agencyName>American Numismatic Society</agencyName>
    <agencyCode>US-nnan</agencyCode>
</maintenanceAgency>

maintenanceEventTop

A repeatable event within <maintenanceHistory> that details modification dates and descriptions of changes, including the person or process responsible for making the change.

May Contain
agent, agentType, eventDateTime, eventDescription, eventType
May Occur Within
maintenanceHistory
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See maintenanceHistory


maintenanceHistoryTop

A required wrapper element within <control> to record the history and creation of the EAC-CPF instance. There must be at least one <maintenanceEvent> element, usually recording the creation of the instance, but there may be many other <maintenanceEvent> elements documenting the milestone events or activities in the maintenance of the instance.

May Contain
maintenanceEvent
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

<maintenanceHistory>
    <maintenanceEvent>
        <eventType>new</eventType>
        <eventDateTime standardDateTime="2012-09-12T12:13:50-04:00Z">2012-09-12T12:13:50-04:00Z</eventDateTime>
        <agentType>human</agentType>
        <agent>Ethan Gruber</agent>
        <eventDescription>Generated from OCRE spreadsheet</eventDescription>
    </maintenanceEvent>
</maintenanceHistory>

maintenanceStatusTop

A required element within <control> that records the current drafting status of an NUDS instance.

May Contain
"cancelled" or "cancelledReplaced" or "cancelledSplit" or "derived" or "new" or "revised"
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

<maintenanceStatus>cancelledReplaced</maintenanceStatus>

manufactureTop

The method of manufacture (e.g., struck), usually defined by a Nomisma URI by means of XLink attributes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

materialTop

The <material> (e.g., silver), usually defined by a Nomisma URI by means of XLink attributes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

measurementsSetTop

The <measurementsSet> is a container for physical measurments of an object.

May Contain
diameter, height, thickness, weight, width
May Occur Within
physDesc

methodTop

Method of acquisition, e.g., 'donation', 'auction'. Ideally, the method should be confined to a restricted list of terms.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
acquiredFrom, previousColl
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

namespaceTop

The URI namespace for an RDF ontology, required for <semanticDeclaration>

May Contain
[xs:anyURI]
May Occur Within
semanticDeclaration
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

See semanticDeclaration


noteTop

A note is a child of <noteSet>. Notes are intended to capture brief miscellaneous statements about the NUDS instance. For greater historical, artistic, etc. context, use <descriptionSet> instead.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
noteSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See noteSet


noteSetTop

Note Set is a container for an unliminted number of <note> elements.

May Contain
note
May Occur Within
descMeta

Example

<noteSet>
    <note>A note about an object.</note>
</noteSet>

nudsTop

NUDS: root element of a NUDS document.

May Contain
control, descMeta, digRep
May Occur Within
[root element]
Attributes
recordType: required
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

objectTypeTop

The type of object, usually defined by a Nomisma or Getty AAT URI by means of XLink attributes. For conceptual record types, the <objectType> will map to nmo:representsObjectType in the Nomisma RDF ontology.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

obverseTop

The <obverse> appears primarily in <typeDesc> for encoding typological attributes about the obverse of a coin, but it can also be used to describe physical conservation characteristics of an object within <physDesc>.

May Contain
completeness, condition, date, dateRange, description, die, grade, legend, persname, reference, secondaryTreatment, symbol, type, typeSeries, wear
May Occur Within
conservationState, countermark, testmark, typeDesc, undertypeDesc

otherAgencyCodeTop

Alternate code representing the instituion or service responsible for the creation, maintenance, and/or dissemination of the NUDS instance.

May Contain
[xs:NMTOKEN]
May Occur Within
maintenanceAgency
Attributes
localType: optional
xml:id: optional

otherRecordIdTop

An element in <control> for the provision of alternative record identifiers to the mandatory identifier in <recordId> that may be associated with the NUDS instance. These might include the identifiers of merged NUDS instances representing the same entity or those of records that are no longer current but had some part in the history and maintenance of the NUDS instance. It may be combined with the @semantic attribute to apply greater semantic meaning by means of RDF properties, which can be implemented when transforming NUDS into RDF.

May Contain
[xs:anyURI]
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional

Example

<control>
    <recordId>ric.1(2).aug.1a</recordId>
    <otherRecordId semantic="dcterms:isReplacedBy">ric.1(2).aug.1A</otherRecordId>
</control>

ownerTop

The owner of the object: a person or organization.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

persnameTop

A personal name associated with a record, typically under <authority> or, when depicted, under <obverse> or <reverse>. It should link to a URI in Nomisma or another concept scheme. The role of this person should be expressed by @xlink:role. In Numishare, typical roles are 'issuer', 'authority', 'portrait', and 'deity'.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
authority, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional

physDescTop

The Physical Description element of <descMeta> is a container for the physical characteristics of an object. It should not be used for typological records.

May Contain
axis, channelOrientation, chemicalAnalysis, conservationState, countermark, dateOnObject, measurementsSet, shape, testmark
May Occur Within
descMeta
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See descMeta


physlocTop

Additional physical location information for an object. This should be used if an object is stored in an offsite storage facility or vault that is at a different location that the address of the collection itself.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

preferCiteTop

A text string that defines the preferred method or format of citation for the NUDS record.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
rightsStmt
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See rightsStmt


prefixTop

The <prefix> is a required element in <semanticDeclaration>. It conforms to norms of prefixes in SPARQL or TTL (or XML namespaces in RDF/XML). E.g., "dcterms" for Dublin Core Terms.

May Contain
[xs:QName]
May Occur Within
semanticDeclaration
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

See semanticDeclaration


previousCollTop

Person or organization that had previously owned the material. The associated date should reflect the dates of ownership or maintenance. XLink attributes may be used to link to stable identifiers.

May Contain
description, method, saleCatalog, saleItem, salePrice
May Occur Within
chronitem
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

provenanceTop

Provenance: a container element for either a textual <description> of provenance or a <chronlist> listing the dates and previous owners of the object.

May Contain
chronlist, description
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

publicationStatusTop

The current publication status of the NUDS record may be specified in the <publicationStatus> element. If according to local practice the instance is still in the process of being approved for publication, the value should be "inProcess," while if approved for publication, the value should be "approved."

May Contain
"approved" or "approvedSubtype" or "inProcess"
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

<publicationStatus>approved</publicationStatus>

recordIdTop

The Record ID must be a unique identifier for the record within the data system. It should conform to xs:anyURI since, ideally, the ID should be part of the records URI.

May Contain
[xs:anyURI]
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional

Example

<recordId>ric.1(2).aug.1a</recordId></control>

refDescTop

The Reference Description contains references about the coin or type. These references may be differentiated by XLink attributes, @localType, or @semantic properties.

May Contain
reference
May Occur Within
descMeta
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

referenceTop

A bibliographic reference contains a loosely-structured bibliographic or electronic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. Xlink and semantic attributes are available to link to HTTP resources.

May Contain
mixed [text] and/or
May Occur Within
obverse, refDesc, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

repositoryTop

A holding institution that may be different from the collection, e.g., when the collection of the Hispanic Society resided within the American Numismatic Society.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
adminDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

reverseTop

The <reverse> appears primarily in <typeDesc> for encoding typological attributes about the reverse of a coin, but it can also be used to describe physical conservation characteristics of an object within <physDesc>.

May Contain
completeness, condition, date, dateRange, description, die, grade, legend, persname, reference, secondaryTreatment, symbol, type, typeSeries, wear
May Occur Within
conservationState, countermark, testmark, typeDesc, undertypeDesc

rightsTop

A statement regarding the rights of the object. It is recommended to link to a statement on rightsstatements.org.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
rightsStmt
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See rightsStmt


rightsStmtTop

Statement of rights recording the NUDS record

May Contain
copyrightHolder, date, license, preferCite, rights
May Occur Within
control

Example

<rightsStmt>
    <copyrightHolder>American Numismatic Society</copyrightHolder>
    <license xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/"/>
    <rights xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/"/>
    <preferCite>RIC I, Second Edition, Augustus 1A. http://numismatics.org/ocre/id/ric.1(2).aug.1A. 
        Online Coins of the Roman Empire (http://numismatics.org/ocre)</preferCite>
</rightsStmt>

saleCatalogTop

The auction catalog. XLink attributes should be used to point to a bibliographic entry.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
acquiredFrom, previousColl
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

saleItemTop

Sale Item, otherwise known as a "Lot Number".

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
acquiredFrom, previousColl
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

salePriceTop

Sale Price. The @currency attribute is required.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
acquiredFrom, previousColl
Attributes
certainty: optional
currency: required
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

secondaryTreatmentTop

The <secondaryTreatment> are post-manufacture alterations to an object.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
conservationState, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

semanticDeclarationTop

The Semantic Declaration is based on similar declaration elements from EAC-CPF. This is a space for defining prefixes and RDF namespaces that are essential components in serializing NUDS to RDF when the @semantic attribute has been applied to a NUDS element (for example, otherRecordId). The <semanticDeclaration> requires two elements, <prefix> and <namespace>

May Contain
namespace, prefix
May Occur Within
control
Attributes
xml:id: optional

Example

<semanticDeclaration>
    <prefix>dcterms</prefix>
    <namespace>http://purl.org/dc/terms/</namespace>
</semanticDeclaration>

shapeTop

The <shape> of an object. Ideally, it should conform to a controlled vocabulary.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
physDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

subjectTop

A subject falls within <subjectSet> and is intended to capture arbitrary subject terms related to the object. XLink attributes are available to link to subject term URIs in vocabulary systems, such as Wikidata or LSCH. The @semantic attribute enables greater semantic meaning to be applied in the transformation of NUDS into RDF, and @localType also enables greater differentiation between types of subjects. The @localType is used by Numishare to publish different types of subject facets.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
subjectSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

See subjectSet


subjectSetTop

Subject Set is a container for an unliminted number of <subject> elements.

May Contain
subject
May Occur Within
descMeta

Example

<subjectSet>
    <subject xlink:type="simple" xlink:href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2184"
        localType="subjectEvent">Soviet Russia</subject>
</subjectSet>

symbolTop

A symbolic character, pictograph, or monogram appearing on a coin. The symbol type can be defined by @localType attributes on a project-by-project basis. Use XLink attributes to link to URIs that define symbols in thesaurus systems. The semantic attribute can be used to enforce stronger semantic meaning by means of RDF properties from the Nomisma ontology (e.g., nmo:hasMonogram). The @position attribute may be used for arbitrary definitions of position on the coin.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
position: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Example

<symbol position="leftField">EPY</symbol>

testmarkTop

A <testmark> is a physical characteristic, separated from typological description. It may optionally contain <obverse> or <reverse> The mark must be encoded in the <symbol> element, which may be included directly within <testmark> when the side of the coin cannot be ascertained, or within the obverse or reverse.

May Contain
obverse, reverse
May Occur Within
physDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

thicknessTop

Z-axis thickness or depth of the object.

May Contain
[xs:decimal]
May Occur Within
measurementsSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

titleTop

Object title. It may be repeated if the title is to be available in numerous languages

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
descMeta
Attributes
localType: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: required

toDateTop

End date of a range. It should include the @standardDate attribute to encode normalized dates according to xs datatypes.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
dateRange
Attributes
notAfter: optional
notBefore: optional
precision: optional
standardDate: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

typeTop

The <type> element may occur in <edge>, <obverse>, and <reverse>. It must include at least one <description> element, which should include the language of the type description.

May Contain
description
May Occur Within
edge, obverse, reverse

typeDescTop

The Typological Description, <typeDesc>, is a container for typological characteristics of a resource, whether a physical object or a coin type. The <typeDesc> is the only required top-level descriptive element within <descMeta>.

May Contain
authority, date, dateRange, denomination, edge, geographic, manufacture, material, objectType, obverse, reverse, weightStandard
May Occur Within
descMeta
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

typeSeriesTop

The <typeSeries> should implement XLink attributes to link to a Nomisma-defined Type Series. Presently, the Type Series is stored in the configuration for Numishare, not explicitly within each NUDS record for coin type projects such as OCRE.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

undertypeDescTop

Identical to the <typeDesc> in what it containers. The Undertype Description captures typological information about the undertype. This element should not be used in conceptual records.

May Contain
authority, date, dateRange, denomination, edge, geographic, manufacture, material, objectType, obverse, reverse, weightStandard
May Occur Within
descMeta
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

valueTop

The monetary value of an appraisal, in a decimal number. The @currency attribute is required.

May Contain
[xs:decimal]
May Occur Within
appraisal
Attributes
certainty: optional
currency: required
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional

wearTop

Level of wear. Recommended to link to a controlled list via XLink attributes. See instances of nmo:CoinWear on Nomisma.org.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
conservationState, obverse, reverse
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

weightTop

Weight encoded in decimal numbers, usually by grams. The unit and precision may be included as attributes.

May Contain
[xs:decimal]
May Occur Within
measurementsSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

weightStandardTop

The <weightStandard> of the coin, which applies particularly to Greek coinage. XLink attributes should be used to link to weight standards defined by Nomisma.org.

May Contain
[text]
May Occur Within
typeDesc, undertypeDesc
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional

widthTop

The <width> should be used with <height> and not <diameter>. If viewing the obverse, the width is the x-axis measurement in decimal numbers.

May Contain
[xs:decimal]
May Occur Within
measurementsSet
Attributes
certainty: optional
resp: optional
semantic: optional
xml:id: optional
xml:lang: optional

Attribute List

certaintyTop

Designates the level of certainty regarding a statement. Recommended values are tokens or URIs connected to uncertainty types defined by Nomisma.org.

May Contain

clockTop

Clock designation for <axis> or <channelOrientation>

May Contain
[xs:string]

Example

See axis


currencyTop

A simple token for designating the currency of a <salePrice> or <value> of appraisal, e. g., 'usd'.

May Contain
[xs:token]

localTypeTop

Generic type attribute used to differentiate the meaning of the same element within a NUDS document.

May Contain

notAfterTop

The latest date possible for an uncertain date.

May Contain
[xs:date] or [xs:gYear] or [xs:gYearMonth]

notBeforeTop

The earliest date possible for an uncertain date.

May Contain
[xs:date] or [xs:gYear] or [xs:gYearMonth]

onDisplayTop

A restricted list of 'true' or 'false' indicating whether the object is currently on display.

May Contain
"false" or "true"

percentageTop

The percentage of a <component> in a chemical analysis. It should be a decimal number with a maximum value of 100 (i. e., 100 = 100%).

May Contain
[xs:decimal]

positionTop

Position of a symbol on a coin. Positions may follow standard terminology as tokens or URIs, e.g., "exergue".

May Contain
[xs:anyURI]

Example

See symbol


precisionTop

Qualification of precision of a measurement.

May Contain
"high" or "low" or "medium"

recordTypeTop

The @recordType is a required attribute for the <nuds> root element. A record must be 'conceptual' (a coin type or die typology) or 'physical'.

May Contain
"conceptual" or "physical"

respTop

Responsible party: indicates the agency responsible for the intervention or interpretation, for example an editor or transcriber.

May Contain

scriptCodeTop

The ISO 15924 four-letter code for the writing script used. (e.g., Latn = Latin).

May Contain
[xs:string]

semanticTop

An RDF property (e.g., nuds:otherRecordId[@semantic='dcterms:isReplacedBy']) to lend greater semantic meaning or differentiation. The prefix of this property should be defined by semanticDeclaration, in the NUDS control. Note that @semantic can be applied to many elements in the NUDS schema that do not allow XLink attributes. The @xlink:arcrole can be used to the same effect as @semantic, and is encouraged when XLink attributes are available. (e. g., nuds:reference[@xlink:arcrole="nmo:hasTypeSeriesItem"]).

May Contain

Example

See otherRecordId


standardDateTop

The date represented in a standard form for computer processing.

May Contain
[xs:date] or [xs:gYear] or [xs:gYearMonth]

standardDateTimeTop

The date or date and time represented in a standard form for computer processing.

May Contain
[xs:date] or [xs:gYear] or [xs:gYearMonth] or [xs:dateTime]

stateTop

Present physical state of the die.

May Contain
[xs:NMTOKEN]

unitsTop

Names the unit used for the measurement. Suggested values include: 1] g; 2] cm; 3] mm

May Contain
regex("(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+") or "cm" or "g" or "mm"