Artavasdes II was a King of the Kingdom of Armenia from 55 BC until 34 BC and a member of the Artaxiad Dynasty. He was a son of king Tigranes the Great of Armenia and Cleopatra of Pontus, his maternal grandfather was king Mithridates VI of Pontus.
Tigranes I of Armenia reigned as King of Armenia from 115 BC to 95 BC. Artavasdes I did not leave any heir; his brother Tigranes ascended to the throne of the Artaxiads. According to Appian, Tigranes II was not the son of Artavasdes, but of Tigranes I.
Artavasdes IV of Armenia; also known as Artavasdes II of Atropatene; Artavasdes II of Media Atropatene and Armenia Major; Artavasdes II and Artavasdes (20 BC – 6 AD) was an Iranian prince who served as King of Media Atropatene. During his reign of Media Atropatene, Artavasdes also served as a Roman Client King of Armenia Major.
Amynander (Greek: Ἀμύνανδρος, Amynandros, in Polybios also Amynas) was king of the Athamanes in south Epirus, following his predecessor Theodorus of Athamania. He was a brother-in-law of the Illyrian king Scerdilaidas and first appears in history as a mediator between Philip V of Macedon and the Aetolians.
Lachares was one of the most influential leaders in Athens in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries B.C., after democracy had been re-established by Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was afterwards secretly gained over by Cassander, who incited him to aim at the acquisition of the tyranny, hoping to be able through his means to rule Athens.
Erato also known as Queen Erato (flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century, died sometime after 12) was a princess of the Kingdom of Armenia and member of the Artaxiad Dynasty. She served as Roman client queen of Armenia from 10 BC until 2 BC with her brother-husband King Tigranes IV. After living in political exile for a number of years, she co-ruled as Roman client queen of Armenia from 6 until 12 with the Herodian Prince Tigranes V, her distant paternal relative. As a queen of Armenia, she may be viewed as one of the last hereditary rulers of her nation.
Tigranes VI, also known as Tigran VI or by his Roman name Gaius Julius Tigranes (Greek: Γαίος Ιούλιος Τιγράνης, Armenian:Տիգրան Զ, before 25 – after 68) was a Herodian Prince and served as a Roman Client King of Armenia in the 1st century.
Antialcidas Nikephoros was an Indo-Greek king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, who reigned from his capital at Taxila. Bopearachchi has suggested that he ruled from ca. 115 to 95 BCE in the western parts of the Indo-Greek realms, whereas R. C. Senior places him around 130 to 120 BCE and also in eastern Punjab (which seems better supported by coin findings).
Demetrius I, also called Dharmamita, was a Greco-Bactrian/Indo-Greek (Yona in Pali language, "Yavana" in Sanskrit) king (reigned c. 200–180 BC), who ruled areas from Bactria to ancient northwestern India. He was the son of the Greco-Bactrian ruler Euthydemus I and succeeded him around 200 BC, after which he conquered extensive areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Diomedes Soter was an Indo-Greek king. The places where his coins have been found seem to indicate that his rule was based in the area of the Paropamisadae, possibly with temporary dominions further east, ca. 95-90 B.C.
Eucratides I (ruled 171–145 BC), sometimes called Eucratides the Great, was one of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings, descendants of dignitaries of Alexander the Great. He uprooted the Euthydemid dynasty of Greco-Bactrian kings and replaced it with his own lineage. He fought against the Indo-Greek kings, the easternmost Hellenistic rulers in northwestern India, temporarily holding territory as far as the Indus, until he was finally defeated and pushed back to Bactria.
Eucratides II or Eukratides II was a Greco-Bactrian king who was a successor and probably a son of Eucratides I. It seems likely that Eucratides II ruled for a relatively short time after the murder of his namesake, until he was dethroned in the dynastic civil war caused by the same murder. He may have been co-regent with his father.
Maues was the first Indo-Scythian king, ruling from 98/85 to 60/57 B.C. He invaded India and established Saka hegemony by conquering Indo-Greek territories. Maues issued joint coins mentioning a queen Machene ("ΜΑΧΗΝΗ"). Machene may have been a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek houses. An Indo-Greek king, Artemidoros, also issued coins where he describes himself as "Son of Maues".
Hermaeus Soter or Hermaios Soter was a Western Indo-Greek king of the Eucratid Dynasty, who ruled the territory of Paropamisade in the Hindu-Kush region, with his capital in Alexandria of the Caucasus, ca. 90-70 B.C.
Laodice appears on Bactrian coinage in conjunction with Heliocles, and therefore she may be the mother of Eucratides I. However, the son of Eucratides, Heliocles, may also have married a princess by the name Laodice, possibly the grand-daughter of Antiochus III of Syria.
Menander I Soter was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala. Menander is noted for having become a patron of Buddhism.
Philoxenus Anicetus was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the region spanning the Paropamisade to Punjab. Philoxenus seems to have been quite an important king who might briefly have ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory. Bopearachchi dates Philoxenus to c. 100–95 B.C.
Pantaleon was a Greek king who reigned some time between 190–180 BC in Bactria and India. He was a younger contemporary or successor of the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius, and is sometimes believed to have been his brother and/or subking.
Peucolaus Soter Dikaios was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the area of Gandhara c. 90 B.C.. His reign was probably short and insignificant, since he left only a few coins, but the relations of the latter Indo-Greek kings remain largely obscure.
Nicias was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the Paropamisade. Most of his relatively few coins have been found in northern Pakistan, indicating that he ruled a smaller principate around the lower Kabul valley. He was possibly a relative of Menander I.
Strato I was an Indo-Greek king who was the son of the Indo-Greek queen Agathokleia, who presumably acted as his regent during his early years after Strato's father, another Indo-Greek king, was killed.
Diodotus I (285-239 BC) was a Seleucid satrap of Bactria who rebelled after the death of Antiochus II. In c. 255 or 246 BC he proclaimed himself an independent king in Bactria. Much of his reign was spent opposing the invading Parthians under their king, Arsaces I.
Agathocles Dikaios was a Greco-Bactrian/ Indo-Greek king, who reigned between around 190 and 180 BC. He might have been a son of Demetrius and one of his sub-kings in charge of the Paropamisade between Bactria and India.
Strato III often called "Philopator" ("the Father-loving") was an Indo-Greek king who ruled c. 25 BCE to 10 CE in the Eastern Punjab. He is only known through the joint coins with his father Strato II. He may have been supplanted, in conjunction with his father or later as an independent king, by the Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps, particularly Rajuvula and Bhadayasa, whose coins were often copied on those of the last Indo-Greek kings.
Thraso, latinized as Thrason, was an Indo-Greek king in Central and Western Punjab, unknown until the 1982 discovery of one of his coins by R. C. Senior in the Surana hoard. The coin is in a style similar to those of Menander I, has the same type of Athena, and shares one of Menander's mint marks, dating ca. 95-80 B.C.
Euthydemus I was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius; he is thought to have originally been a satrap of Sogdiana who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king. Strabo, on the other hand, correlates his accession with internal Seleucid wars in 223–221 BC. His kingdom seems to have been substantial, including probably Sogdiana to the north, and Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of Bactria.
Nicomedes IV Philopator was the king of Bithynia from c. 94 BC to 74 BC. He was the first son and successor of Nicomedes III of Bithynia and Nysa. As one of his last acts as king of Bithynia, in 74 BC, Nicomedes IV bequeathed the entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome.
Nicomedes III was the son and successor of Nicomedes II of Bithynia. He declined to help Rome against the Cimbri in 104 BC on the grounds that the most of his men had been seized and enslaved by Roman publicani
Nicomedes II was the son of Prusias II. He allied with Rome in the war against Aristonicus (133–129), but his request for territory in Phrygia was refused. Nicomedes introduced the Bithynian era for numbering years on his coins.
Diodotus II (c. 252 BC – c. 223 BC) succeeded his father Diodotus I in 239 BC. An alliance with the Parthians allowed Diodotus II to successfully defend his kingdom against Seleucus II in c. 239 BC, but in c. 223 BC he was killed by Euthydemus (I), a usurping governor of Sogdiana.
Sophytes, or Sopeites, Saubhuti was the name of a king in Punjab in the northwestern Indian subcontinent during the time of the Alexander's invasion. Sophytes surrendered to Alexander and was allowed to retain his kingdom. Probably another Sophytes, who was satrap in the eastern territories conquered by Alexander the Great, minted his own coins in the Greek style circa 300 BCE. Little is known about him and hypotheses are numerous: Sophytes may have been a Hellenistic satrap who replaced Stasanor in Bactria-Sogdiana, or may have ruled in a neighboring area; he may also have been a Satrap of Arachosia.
Prusias I Cholus was the son of Ziaëlas, king of Bithynia. He sdiedd with Philip V against the Attalid kingdom. He remianed neutral in the Roman against Antiochus, but lost territory as the result of a subsequent unsuccessful war against the Attalids.
Prusias II was the son and successor of Prusias I. He married the sister of Perseus of Macedon, and was forced to abase himself before the Senate to seek rehabilitation. He was despoed by his son and stoned to death.
Asander, named Philocaesar Philoromaios (110 BC – 17 BC) was a Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom. He started his career as a general under Pharnaces II, and although not descendent of the Mithraditic Dynasty, he is among their line of kings in the Bosporus.
Mithridates I of the Bosporus sometimes known as Mithridates II of the Bosporus and Mithridates of Pergamon (flourished 1st century BC), was a nobleman from Anatolia. Mithridates was one of the sons born to King Mithridates VI of Pontus from his mistress, the Galatian Princess Adobogiona the Elder.
Dynamis, nicknamed Philoromaios, was a Roman client queen of the Bosporan Kingdom during the Late Roman Republic and part of the reign of Augustus, the first Roman Emperor. She ruled jointly with her husbands Asander, a certain Scribonius and Polemon I of Pontus until her death, probably in 14 B.C.
Tiberius Julius Ininthimeus Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Ininthimaeus, Ininthimeus or Inithimeus (means lover of Caesar, lover of Rome who is the Pious one, flourished 3rd century – died 240) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Gepaepyris was a Thracian princess, and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom, the longest known surviving Roman Client Kingdom. When Aspurgus died in 38, Gepaepyris ruled with their first son Mithridates the Bosporan Kingdom until 45. Later, her other son Cotys I succeeded her and Mithridates.
Hygiainon or Hygiaenon was an Archon of the Bosporan Kingdom after his predecessor, Leukon II, was slain by his wife Alkathoe in c. 220 BC. Although he was not part of the Spartocids, he seems to have been a supporter of Kamasarye, then heiress and queen of the Bosporan Kingdom.
Pharnaces II of Pontus, also known as Pharnaces II was the king of the Bosporan Kingdom until his death. He was a monarch of Persian and Greek Macedonian ancestry. He was the youngest child born to King Mithridates VI of Pontus from his first wife, his sister Queen Laodice.
Paerisades V was the son of Paerisades III and Kamasarye Philoteknos. He was last Spartocid ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom and ruled from 125 to c. 109 BC after the death of his brother Paerisades IV Philometor. With his death, ended a dynasty of Bosporan kings that had ruled the Bosporan Kingdom for over 3 centuries, starting in 438 BC with his ancestor Spartocus I.
Tiberius Julius Rhadamsades, sometimes known as Rhadamsades was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom. Around 308/309, Rhadamsades succeeded his father when he died. Rhadamsades became co-ruler with his older brother Rhescuporis VI. Rhadamsades ruled as Bosporan King with Rhescuporis VI from around 309 until his death in 323.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis III Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis III was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom. In 210/211 the paternal grandfather of Rhescuporis III, King Sauromates II died, Rhescuporis III succeeded with his father Rhescuporis II. Rhescuporis III co-ruled with his father as Bosporan Kings until their deaths in 227.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis II Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis II (died 227) was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom. He co-ruled with his son, Rhescuporis III, until they died in 227.
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis VI (died 342) was the last ruler of the Bosporan Kingdom, a client realm of the Roman Empire. He ruled from 303 until his death in 342, and was a contemporary to the Tetrarchy and the Constantinian dynasty in Rome.