In Roman mythology, Tarpeia, daughter of the Roman commander Spurius Tarpeius, was a Vestal virgin who betrayed the city of
Rome to the Sabines at the time of their women's abduction for what she thought would be a reward of jewelry. She was instead
crushed to death and her body cast from the southern cliff of Rome's Capitoline Hill, thereafter called after her the Tarpeian
Rock (Rupes Tarpeia).
In ancient Greek religion, Telesphorus was a minor child-god of healing. He was a possible son of Asclepius and frequently
accompanied his sister Hygieia. He was depicted as a dwarf whose head was always covered with a cowl hood or cap.
Tutela was the ancient Roman concept of "guardianship", conceived of as a goddess in the Imperial period, and from the earliest
period as a functional role that various tutelary deities might play, particularly Juno. Tutela had particular applications
in Roman law.
In Roman mythology, Tranquillitas was the personification of tranquility. Tranquillitas seems to be related to Annona (the
goddess of the corn harvest from Egypt) and Securitas, implying reference to the peaceful security of the Roman Empire.
Venus is a Roman goddess, whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity, and victory. In Roman
mythology, she was the ancestor of the Roman people through her son, Aeneas, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy.
Vejovis or Vejove was a Roman god of Etruscan origins. Vejovis was portrayed as a young man, holding a bunch of arrows, pilum,
(or lightning bolts) in his hand, and accompanied by a goat. Romans believed that Vejovis was one of the first gods to be
born. He was a god of healing, and became associated with the Greek Asclepius.
Venus Felix ("Lucky Venus"), probably a traditional epithet, combining aspects of Venus and Fortuna, goddess of both good
and bad fortune and personification of luck, whose iconography includes the rudder of a ship.
The Bernisches Historisches Museum (BHM) is the history museum of Bern, Switzerland. The oldest of the approximately 80,000
objects date back to the 6th century BC, the most recent represent the present. The holdings were founded by the Stadtbibliothek
Bern and found their way to the BHM in 1898. They contain the world's most important collection of Bernese coins and medals
as well as coin and medal dies. It is also one of the most important Swiss collections of Swiss coins as well as of ancient
coins (Greek and Roman). It also includes an internationally important and nationally unique collection of Oriental coins.
The Coin Cabinet of the Swiss National Museum houses the largest numismatic collection in Switzerland. The focus lies on Celtic,
medieval and modern coins of Switzerland. However, the collection also includes ancient Greek and Roman coins, as well as
medieval and modern coins from all over the world.
Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae (east of Dacia) and the Romans called
them Daci. Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube).
The Venus Genetrix is a sculptural type which shows the Roman goddess Venus in her aspect of Genetrix ("foundress of the family"),
as she was honoured by the Julio-Claudian dynasty of Rome, which claimed her as their ancestor.
The personification of the Via Trajana or Traiana, which was an ancient Roman road. It was built by the emperor Trajan as
an extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum. It is often shown holding a wheel.
The Gallo-Roman Museum in Tongeren holds a collection of archaeological finds from northeastern Belgium, dating from prehistoric,
Roman and early medieval times (up to 900 AD). Part of this collection are more than 7000 coins, mainly Roman coins found
in Tongeren (the Roman town of Atuatuca Tungrorum) and to a lesser extent Celtic, Roman, Merovingian and Carolingian coins
from the region.
German sculptor and medalist.
Lit.: B. Ernsting, Ludwig Gies. The Munich Years, The Medal 13, 1988, pp. 58-72; B. Ernsting, Ludwig Gies. Meister des Kleinreliefs.
Mit Werkverzeichnis der Medaillen und Plaketten, Münzen und Münzentwürfe, Siegel und Trockenstempel. Köln (1995); Die Kunstmedaille
in Deutschland 14 (2000) p. 331; Die Kunstmedaille in Deutschland 24 (2007) pp. 141-156.
German medalist. In particular known for his WWI medals.
Lit.: L. Forrer, Biographical Dictionary of Medallists II (1904) p. 286; VII (1923) p. 379; G. W. Kienast, The Medals of Karl
Goetz (1967); Suppl. volume (1986); M. Heidemann, Medaillenkunst in Deutschland von 1895 bis 1914. Die Kunstmedaille in Deutschland
8 (1998) p. 497.
No biographical information is known.
Achtenhagen is attested with medalic works at the Deutsche Kunstausstellung in Cologne in 1906. He also later produced some
World War medals. Some of his medals are kept in the Kunsthalle Hamburg.
Lit.: M. Heidemann, Medaillenkunst in Deutschland von 1895 bis 1914. Die Kunstmedaille in Deutschland 8 (1998) p. 489 (with
Hugo Bendorff was born in 1867 in Riga, there is no addititonal biographical information available. Bendorff was a student
of Carl Bernewitz in Berlin. As a medalist he took with some of his works part at the Berlin Edition of the Deutsche Schaumünze.
Lit.: W. Steguweit, Das Münzkabinett der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin und die Förderung der Medaillenkunst. Künstlerbriefe
und Medaillenedition zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Das Kabinett 5 (1998) p. 178.
The Kreuzer goes back to a groschen coin which was minted in Merano in South Tyrol (so-called Etschkreuzer) from 1271. Because
of the double cross on the obverse of the coin, it soon received the name Kreuzer. It spread throughout the south of the German-speaking
area in the 15th and 16th centuries and was, according to the Reichsmünzgesetz 1551 a unit for small silver money. Later on,
Kreuzer were also made of copper or bronze.
Name for Byzantine bronze coins worth 40 nummi. Sometimes also used for the Roman billon coins of the Diocletianic reform
and of the first half of the 4th century AD, although there is no concrete evidence for the attribution. The Byzantine coins
bear the letter M resp. numeral XXXX as a mark of value.
A term for Roman billon/copper coins attested in the 4th century AD. It is often applied to the AE3 coins of the second half
of the 4th/early-5th centuries, but without any concrete evidence for the attribution.
An ancient denomination with the value of 1/4 denarius; originally 2 1/2, after the retariffing of the denarius 4 asses. Introduced
in the late-3rd century BC as a silver coin, from the Augustan coin reform it was struck in brass.
The antoninianus (not a contemporary Roman term) was a coin used during the Roman Empire thought to have been valued at 2
denarii. It was initially silver, but was slowly debased to bronze. It is not known what it was called in antiquity.