Charles the Great (Charlemagne, Karl der Große, Carlo Magno) became king of the Franks in 768, sole ruler in 771, and king of the Lombards in 774. He was crowned emperor by the pope in 800 and died in 814.
Julia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (7 November 15 or 6 November 16 – 19/23 March 59) was a Roman Empress. She was a great-granddaughter of Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter of Tiberius, sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius, and mother of Nero.
Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties.
Baibars al-Jashnakir ( Arabic: بيبرس الجاشنكير ) or Baibars II. Royal name: al-Malik al-Muzaffar Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Jashnakir al-Mansuri, (Arabic: الملك المظفر ركن الدين بيبرس الجاشنكير المنصورى) (Nickname: Abu al-Fath (Arabic: أبوالفتح) . The 12th Mamluk Sultan of Egypt who ruled for a short period (1308–1309).
The Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویان) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Persia, much of Transoxania, and the northern parts of Indiafrom 977 to 1186.
The mint(s) at the former village and city of Altona. It became a borough of the Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Capital of the National State of Hamburg, Germany, in 1937. Altona had been granted city rights in 1664, and was under Danish administration from 1640 to 1864 as part of the Duchy of Holstein.
Hasangazi (formerly Lu'lu'a, Lulu, or Lüle) is a village of the district Ulukışla in the Central Anatolia region ofTurkey. Located 16 km east of Ulukışla and 70 km south of Nigde, the village has a population of 887.
Third magistrate attested in Athens in 104/103 BC. Belongs to the same family as Amynomachos, ephebe of 102/101 BC (Habicht 1991, p. 22): See M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (1961) nos. 801-805 / issue 61 (p. 550); C. Habicht, Zu den Münzmagistraten der Silberprägung des Neuen Stils, Chiron 21, 1991, pp. 5 and 22 (104/103 BC); Prosopographia Attica 738; P. M. Fraser – E. Matthews, A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names II Attica (1994) p. 26 s. v. Amynomachos, no. 1; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 314 s. v. Amynomachos.
Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Qahir bi'llah (Arabic: أبو منصور محمد القاهر بالله), usually known simply by his regnal title al-Qahir bi'llah (Arabic: القاهر بالله, "Victorious by the will of God"), was the 19th Abbasid Caliph in Baghdadfrom 932 to 934.
Antiochus XII Dionysus Epiphanes Philopator Callinicus ("Dionysus Manifest, Father-loving, Nobly-victorious") was the twenty-second king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 87/6 to 83/2 BC. A brother of Seleucus VI, Demetrius III, Antiochus XI, and Philip I, Antiochus XII succeeded Demetrius III at Damascus after Demetrius III was carried off by the Parthians. He made no attempt to expand his power into northern Syria, but concentrated his energies on wars against the Nabataen Arabs and the Jewish priest-king, Alexander Jannaeus. Antiochus XII was killed while campaigning against the Nabataeans in 83/2 BC and his army left to die of hunger in the desert wasteland around the Dead Sea. Aretas III, the Nabataean king, was subsequently invited to rule Damascus.
First magistrate attested in Athens in 150/149 BC [issue 15]. Again attested as first magistrate in 148/147 BC [issue 17]. AMMO[nios] most probably is a relative of Ammonios, the first magistrate of 118/117 (issue 47), maybe his father (cf. Thompson 1961, p. 58 with note 2 and p. 550). Councillor in 140/139 BC (H. B. Mattingly, NC 157, 1997, p. 258): See M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (1961) nos. 94-101, and nos. 111-120 / issues 15 and 17 (pp. 549 f.); C. Habicht, Zu den Münzmagistraten der Silberprägung des Neuen Stils, Chiron 21, 1991, p. 5 (150/149 and 148/147 BC); Prosopographia Attica 718; P. M. Fraser – E. Matthews, A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names II Attica (1994) p. 25 s. v. Ammonios, no. 9; H. B. Mattingly, NC 157, 1997, p. 258; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 314 s. v. Ammomios.
First magistrate in Athens in 134/133 BC (issue 31). Lit.: M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (1961) issue 31; C. Habicht, Zu den Münzmagistraten der Silberprägung des Neuen Stils, Chiron 21, 1991, p. 5; Prosopographia Attica no. 13628.
In 1841, the United Friedrichs-University Halle-Wittenberg decided to set up an archaeological University collection. However, this project could not be implemented until 1849. In this year the first quite small archaeological gallery was opened as the first public art collection in Halle. The core of this museum was the "Münzkabinett" formed by Johann Heinrich Schulze (1687-1744), which already provided access to original coins for lectures and exercises on ancient numismatics during his life-time. By doing this Schulze became a founder of numismatic teaching at University. This core collection, the "Numophylacium Schulzianum", can thus be linked to the development of the European Enlightenment in the 18th century in Halle, and it still is preserved here today. Almost half of today’s inventory of c. 5.000 coins (a total of c. 1.400 Greek, some Byzantine, and Oriental coins, the remaining two thirds are Roman) originates from Schulze’s collection.
Caligula, properly Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was Roman emperor from AD 37–41. Born Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The mint(s) at the medieval and early modern city of Clausthal, granted the privilege of a Freie Bergstadt in 1554, in 1924 merged with Zellerfeld to create the City of Clausthal-Zellerfeld, National State of Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen), Germany.
An individual who issued coins at the ancient city of Priene c. 230-190 BC. Regling completed: Bias (?) II. Lit.: K. Regling, Die Münzen von Priene (1927) p. 158; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 407 (280-275 BC); See M. J. Price, Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus (London/Zurich, 1994), no. 2234.
Diyarbakır (Kurdish: Amed; Zazaki: Diyarbekır) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey. Situated on the banks of the Tigris River, it is the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır Province.
First magistrate attested in Athens in a period of 83/82-72/71 BC. Then attested as second magistrate in 71/70 BC [Thompson issue 92]. From Ikarion. Belongs to the same family as his colleague Dionysios, the first magistrate in 71/70 BC (Habicht 1991, p. 14). Maybe identical with the second magistrate of issue 69 (following Caramessini-Oeconomides – Kleiner 1975, p. 17, against LGPN where two different persons were listed): See M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (1961) no. 1236 / her issue 92 (p. 575); M. Caramessini-Oeconomides – F. S. Kleiner, RBNum 121, pp. 1975, pp. 16-18 (Mnasagoras and Mentor-issue); C. Habicht, Zu den Münzmagistraten der Silberprägung des Neuen Stils, Chiron 21, 1991, p. 6 (84/83 BC, his issue 81) and ibid. p. 2 note 2 (period of the Mnasagoras and Mentor-issue); ibid. p. 6 and 14 (71/70 BC, his issue 94); Prosopographia Attica 10227; P. M. Fraser – E. Matthews, A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names II Attica (1994) p. 315 s. v. Mnasagoras, no. 6; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 691 s. v. Mnasagoras.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore Moesiae inferioris. His name appears on coins in Marcianopolis under Caracalla, c. AD 211-217. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 140 no. 112 (time of Caracalla’s early reign); PIR² Q 18; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 630 s. v. Kyntilianos (c. AD 211-217).
Volga Bulgaria, or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the seventh and thirteenth centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
Mintmaster in Deutz, Germany, in 1693, and in Bonn from 1698 to 1728. Friedrich Wendels, was listed as a Silversmith in 1693, was enrolled as Unverdienter on 5 August 1657. He died on 26 August 1728. Lit.: Alfred Noss, Die Münzen der Erzbischöfe von Köln 1547-1794 (1925) pp. 338, 427; Wolfgang Scheffler, Goldschmiede Rheinland-Westfalens - Aachen - Köln (1973) n. 1548 pp. 541-542.
Tbilisi (Georgian: თბილისი [tʰb̥ilisi] ( listen)), formerly known as Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mtkvari River with a population of roughly 1.5 million inhabitants. Founded in the 5th century by the monarch of Georgia's ancient precursor Kingdom of Iberia, Tbilisi has since served, with intermissions, as the Georgian capital. Formerly, the city had also served as the seat of the Imperial administration of the Caucasus during the Russian rule from 1801 to 1917, the capital of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic in 1918, of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921, of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1921 to 1991, and the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
The Muḥammadzay, a small subdivision of the Durrānī Bārakzay of Ḳandahār, derive their name from Muḥammad, a contemporary of Malik Sadō, chief of the Abdālī clans, with whom he lived amongst his small tribe at Arg̲h̲asān, SE of Ḳandahār, about 1000/1591.
Magistrate attested in Abydos in c. 75-65 BC. See Th. Corsten, A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names VA Coastal Asia Minor: Pontos to Ionia (2010) s. v. Menoitios (5); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 677 s. v. ΜΕΝΟΙΤΙΟΣ. Chronology: LGPN VA (c.100-70BC); F. de Callataÿ, Abydos sur Aesillas, in: E. Kypraiou (ed.), Χαρακτήρ: Aφιέρωμα στη Mάντω Oικoνoμίδoυ. Athens 1996, p. 83 (c. 75-65 BC).
Ptolemy Philadelphus ("Ptolemy the brother-loving", August/September 36 BC – 29 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the youngest and fourth child of Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, and her third with Roman Triumvir Mark Antony.
Zaragoza (/ˌzærəˈɡoʊzə/, /ˌsærəˈɡoʊsə/ or /ˌθærəˈɡoʊθə/, Spanish: [θaɾaˈɣoθa]), also called Saragossa(/ˌsærəˈɡɒsə/) in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community ofAragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego, roughly in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin.
Third magistrate attested in Athens in 102/101 BC: See M. Thompson, The New Style Silver Coinage of Athens (1961) nos. 828-829 / issue 63 (p. 558); C. Habicht, Zu den Münzmagistraten der Silberprägung des Neuen Stils, Chiron 21, 1991, p. 5 (102/101 BC); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 426 s. v. Dam-.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Thrace during the reign of the Emperor Commodus (middle 180ies AD). His name appears on the coins of Nikopolis and Pautalia, always as Hegemon. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 169 no. 40; ibid., I Addenda (2011) 22:040; PIR² C 795.
Seleucus IV Philopator ("Father-loving") was the eldest son of Antiochus III and succeeded him as the seventh king of the Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 187 to 175 BC, during which time he formed alliances in Asia Minor and Macedon in order to restore Seleucid influence curtailed by the Peace of Apamea. He was assassinated by his chief minister, Heliodorus, in 175 BC.
Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish:II.Selim), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" in west and as "Sarı Selim" (Selim the Blond) in east, was the Sultanof the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.