The Roman Kingdom (also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome) was the earliest period of
Roman history when the city and its territory were ruled by kings. According to oral accounts, the Roman Kingdom began with
the city's founding c. 753 BC, with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in central Italy, and ended
with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic c. 509 BC.
Octavia the Younger (Latin: Octavia Minor ; c. 66 –11 BC) was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known
also as Octavian), the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and the fourth wife of Mark Antony.
According to the Roman foundation myth, Titus Tatius was the king of the Sabines from Cures and joint-ruler of the Kingdom
of Rome for several years. During the reign of Romulus, the first king of Rome, Tatius declared war on Rome in response to
the incident known as The Rape of the Sabine Women.
A person whose primary role with respect to monetary instruments is to be depicted in the iconography. Although many rulers
who were authorities or issuers of money may also have been depicted (with separate metadata properties in the encoding of
numismatic objects or types), a person whose role is defined as 'portrait' only serves that role in connection to a political
Aulus Postumius Tubertus was a Roman military leader in the wars with the Aequi and Volsci during the fifth century BC. He
served as Magister Equitum under the dictator Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus in 434 BC.
The collection currently holds c. 1,150 coins, mainly of the Roman Imperial period (Republic 72, Principate 517, Late Antiquity
104), plus a number of Provincial issues of the Roman period (93), and some Celtic, Germanic, and other Greek coins. In 2008,
22 Late Roman coins and 285 Byzantine ones of the Krengel collection were purchased.
The Indo-Greek kingdoms is a modern term applied to the area ruled by the kings from Apollodotos I in the mid second century
BCE to Strato II and Strato III in the first century CE. The geographical extent of the various kingdoms is uncertain and
varied over time and they were rarely a single political unit. It is shown here at what is considered to be its largest size.
The Graeco-Bactrian kingdom is a modern term applied to the area ruled by the kings from Diodotos I in the mid third century
BCE to Heliocles I in the second half of the second century BCE. The geographical extent of the kingdom is uncertain and varied
over time. It is shown here at what is considered to be its largest size.
Demetrius I was a Graeco-Bactrian king ruling in the early second century BCE. He was the son and successor of Euthydemus
I and is considered to have expanded his kingdom to the south through conquests in India
Strato III often called "Philopator" ("the Father-loving") was an Indo-Greek king who ruled c. 25 BCE to 10 CE in the Eastern
Punjab. He is only known through the joint coins with his father Strato II. He may have been supplanted, in conjunction with
his father or later as an independent king, by the Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps, particularly Rajuvula and Bhadayasa, whose
coins were often copied on those of the last Indo-Greek kings.
Thraso, latinized as Thrason, was an Indo-Greek king in Central and Western Punjab, unknown until the 1982 discovery of one
of his coins by R. C. Senior in the Surana hoard. The coin is in a style similar to those of Menander I, has the same type
of Athena, and shares one of Menander's mint marks, dating ca. 95-80 B.C.
Antialcidas Nikephoros was an Indo-Greek king. Bopearachchi has suggested that he ruled from ca. 115 to 95 BCE in the western
parts of the Indo-Greek realms, whereas R. C. Senior places him around 130 to 120 BCE and also in eastern Punjab (which seems
better supported by coin findings).
Sophytes, or Sopeites, Saubhuti was the name of a king in Punjab in the northwestern Indian subcontinent during the time of
the Alexander's invasion. Sophytes surrendered to Alexander and was allowed to retain his kingdom. Probably another Sophytes,
who was satrap in the eastern territories conquered by Alexander the Great, minted his own coins in the Greek style circa
300 BCE. Little is known about him and hypotheses are numerous: Sophytes may have been a Hellenistic satrap who replaced Stasanor
in Bactria-Sogdiana, or may have ruled in a neighboring area; he may also have been a Satrap of Arachosia.
Antiochus Nicator was a Graeco-Bactrian king who ruled after Diodotus II and preceded Euthydemus I. The coins now attributed
to him were previously considered to be early issues of the Diodotids, although Antiochus was also known from the 'pedigree'
coins of Agathocles.
Heliocles was a Graeco-Bactrian ruler who is attested only on coins featuring an uncertain Laodice. He was a contemporary
of Eucratides I. It is unclear whether he should be assimilated with another Graeco-Bactrian Heliocles known from numismatic
Menander I Soter was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the
Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala. Menander is noted for having become a patron of
Diomedes Soter was an Indo-Greek king. The places where his coins have been found seem to indicate that his rule was based
in the area of the Paropamisadae, possibly with temporary dominions further east
The Indo-Greek kingdoms were a series of kingdoms spanning modern-day Afghanistan, into the classical regions of the Punjab
of the Indian subcontinent (northern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BCE and were ruled by
more than thirty kings, often ruling contemporaneously. The state of the evidence does not currently allow modern scholarship
to state securely which ruler succeeded which and where exactly their respective dominions are to be localised. The period
of the kingdoms drew to a close ca. 10 CE after the joint reigns of Strato II and Strato III and the rise of the Kushan Empire
Graeco-Bactrian ruler who is attested only through his coins. He seems to have been one of the last rulers in Bactria in the
second half of the second century BCE, but nothing precise can be said about his reign.
A rectangle is a four-sided object with each angle at (or approximating, depending on production method) 90 degrees. Typically
it consists of two pairs of sides that are differing lengths. For shapes of four equal sizes, use the square Nomisma ID.