C. Papius C.f. Mutilus, from Samnitian family, was a general in the Social War. He issued coins with his name sometimes with the additional title of imperator (90-88 BC). Lit.: N. K. Rutter, Historia Numorum Italy (2001) p. 57; Der Neue Pauly IX (2000) 295 s. v. Papius no. I 4 (K.-L. Elvers).
An individual who issued coins at the ancient city of Maroneia, 365-330s BC. See S. Psoma, The coins of Maroneia and the classical city at Molyvoti. A contribution to the history of Aegean Thrace (Athens, 2008), p.173. (Cf. also E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Maroneia (Berlin, 1987), pp. 44-45 who dates 386/385-348/347 BC and writes Aristoles). W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 360.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Thrace c. AD 142-144.
Consul suffectus in AD 148. His name appears on coins of Philippopolis and Perinthos partially with the title of Presbeutes, and in Nikopolis as Hegemon.
Lit.: PIR² A 883; B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 164 no. 21; ibid., Addenda I (2011) no. 22:021.
Legatus augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae under Antoninus Pius during AD 150ies.
He appears with his title of Hegemon on coins of Philippopolis.
Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 166 no. 24; ibid. Addenda (2011) no. 22:024; PIR² G 50.
The Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) owns roughly 30.000 coins and medals, ranging from Greek and Roman specimens to modern currencies. These originate from various sources, such as the collections of Gerlach, Heerdegen, Luthart, Pick, Sinugowitz, Varnhagen, Voit von Salzburg, Will, Zucker, as well as the items of the “Ilse und Ulrich Zwicker Stiftung”. The Will collection, consisting of about 12.000 pieces, and the Zwicker foundation with its approx. 11.000 objects, make roughly two thirds of the whole lot. The eldest collection was composed by Friedrich Voit von Salzburg between 1845 and 1858. The most recent accession, the objects of the “Ilse und Ulrich Zwicker Stiftung”, took place at the beginning of this century. The chronological and regional emphasis of the coins differs by each collection with a particular focus on antiquity, from the Greek and Romans until the end of the Byzantine times.
The Ashmolean is the University of Oxford’s museum of art and archaeology, founded in 1683. The Numismatic collections are kept in the Heberden Coin Room, which houses a systematic and comprehensive collection of some three hundred thousand coins and medals with particular strengths in the fields of Greek, Roman, Celtic, Byzantine, Medieval, Islamic, Indian, and Chinese coinages. It also holds collections of paper money, tokens, jetons, and commemorative and art medals.
The Numismatic Collection of History Institute of the Faculty of History of the Ruhr-University Bochum consists of more than 3,400 objects covering the whole of Antiquity, from the Archaic Age of Greece to the Byzantine period. In addition, it includes a small Late Mediaeval hoard, which was discovered in Querenburg in 1966 in the course of the construction of the University.
The coin collection of the Archaelogical Museum of Münster University consists of more than 5,500 objects covering all historical periods in antiquity: Greek coins (of the archaic, classical and hellenistic periods), coins of the Roman Republic and empire, Civic and provincial coins of the Imperial period, and Byzantine ones.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore during the reign of the emperor Hadrian. He appears as Presbeutes and Antistrategos on coins of Perinthus and Bizye.
Lit.: E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Perinthos (1965) 153; Y. Youroukova, Die Münzprägung von Bizye (1981) 9. 50; B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 163-164 no. 18; ibid., I Addendum (2011) 22:018; PIR² M 43 (reads Maecilius Nepos); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (Wien, 2009) p. 706.
An individual who issued coins at the ancient city of Maroneia, 480-450 BC. See S. Psoma, The coins of Maroneia and the classical city at Molyvoti. A contribution to the history of Aegean Thrace (Athens, 2008), p. 164. 166. (Cf. also E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Maroneia (Berlin, 1987), p. 122 who dates 495-448 BC.)
The Numismatic Collection of the Professorship for Ancient History at the University of Passau contains almost 380 coins, covering nearly the whole of ancient Numismatic History, from the Archaic Age of Greece to Late Antiquity and the Byzantine Age, with a focus on the coins of the Roman emperors.
The beginning of the collection is connected with Prof. Dr. H. Wolff, who was holder of the chair for Ancient History from 1980 to 2006. His successor, Prof. Dr. O. Stoll (since 2007), was able to purchase and acquire additional coins, so that the collection reached its contemporary content in 2015.
The Professorship is – due to missing financial aid by the university – not able to purchase additional coins.
The Antigonid Dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed"), ruling over Macedonia and surrounding areas from about 306 to 168 B.C.
Consul suffectus in AD 19. Proconsul Provinciae Asiae from mid AD 28 to mid AD 36. His name appears on coins of Pergamum in Mysia and Smyrna in Ionia.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Syriae between AD 39 and 42.
Lit.: PIR² P 269; P. R. Franke, Publius Petronius und L. Aelius Seianus, Archäologischer Anzeiger 83, 1969, 474 pp; G. R. Stumpf, Numismatische Studien zur Chronologie der römischen Statthalter in Kleinasien (122 v. Chr.-163 n. Chr.) (1991) pp. 120-122.
Consul suffectus in AD 99. Proconsul of Bithynia and Pontus AD 101/102. His name and title (in Greek) appear on coin issued on behalf of the Koinon of Bithynia.
Lit.: PIR² I 205; G. Stumpf, Numismatische Studien zur Chronologie der römischen Statthalter in Kleinasien 122 v. Chr.-163 n. Chr. (1991) pp. 278-280; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 405.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Cappadokia and Galatia from autumn AD 94 to mid AD 100. Consul suffectus in AD 94.
On provincial coins he sometimes bears the Greek titles of Antistrategos and Presbeutes.
Lit.: PIR² P 530; G. R. Stumpf, Numismatische Studien zur Chronologie der römischen Statthalter in Kleinasien (122 v. Chr.-163 n. Chr.) (1991) pp. 239-258.
With mythological roots tying it to the Greek descendants of Aeacus, including Peleus and Achilles, the dynasty coalesced into a historic line of Molossian kings of Epirus beginning with Admetus (490 B.C.) and ending with Deidamia (died 233 B.C.), daughter of Pyrrhus II.
The Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria (and probably the surrounding provinces) founded the Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC and became King Diodotus I of Bactria.
The Ptolemaic dynasty, sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Atropatene was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
The Kingdom of Cappadocia was a Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom centered in the historical region of Cappadocia in Asia Minor. It developed from the former Achaemenid satrapy of Cappadocia, and it was founded by its last satrap, Ariarathes (later Ariarathes I). Throughout its history, it was ruled by three families in succession; the House of Ariarathes (331-96 BC), the House of Ariobarzanes (96 BC-36 BC), and lastly that of Archelaus (36 BC-17 AD). In 17 AD, following the death of Archelaus, during the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius (14-37), the kingdom was incorporated as a Roman province.
Epirus was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north.
The Kingdom of Bithynia was formed within the historical region of Bithynia, in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. Founded by the late 4th century B.C., it rose to prominence among the lesser kingdoms of Anatolia under the reign of Nicomedes I (c. 278 - 255 B.C.). The kingdom was finally bequeathed to the Roman Republic in 74 B.C. by Nicomedes IV.
The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, was a hereditary dynasty of Persian origin, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes (Mithridates III of Cius) in 281 BC. The origins of the dynasty were located in the highest circles of the ruling Persian nobility in Cius.
The Ariarathid Dynasty was founded by Ariarathes I, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Cappadocia (331 B.C.). It ended with the reign of Ariarathes IX in 95 B.C., when he was succeeded by Ariobarzanes I.
Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties.
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Ptolemaic Empire was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty, which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty. The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BCE. It reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians. The exact original boundaries of Paeonia, like the early history of its inhabitants, are obscure, but it is known that it was located immediately north of ancient Macedonia (which corresponded roughly to the modern Greek region of Macedonia), and to the south-east of Dardania (which was similar to modern-day Kosovo); in the east were the Thracian mountains, and in the west, the Illyrians.
The foundation of the Kingdom of Pergamum was laid when Philetaerus took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC
Eumenes I was dynast of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC. He was the son of Eumenes, the brother of Philetaerus, the founder of the Attalid dynasty, and Satyra, daughter of Poseidonius. As he had no children, Philetaerus adopted Eumenes to become his heir.
Alexander I Theopator Euergetes ("Divinely-fathered Benefactor"), nicknamed Balas ("Lord"), was the twelfth king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling from 152 to 145 BC. Alexander I was a supposed son of Antiochus IV supported by Attalus II of Pergamum and Ptolemy VI of Egypt as a rival claimant to the Seleucid throne against Demetrius I. In 152 BC, Alexander I arrived at Ptolemais (Ake) and established his base there. He controled Apamea by 152/1 BC and in 150 BC defeated and killed Demetrius I. Shortly thereafter, Alexander I married Cleopatra Thea, the daughter of Ptolemy VI in order to seal an alliance with her father. Things began to fall apart in 148 and 147 BC, when Susa and Media were lost to Parthian and local kings and Demetrius II arrived in Syria to avenge his father, Demetrius I. Unfortunately, Alexander I had alienated his father-in-law by plotting against him, and therefore Ptolemy VI supported Demetrius II. Alexander I was forced to flee to Cilicia, where he raised an army to wage war against Demetrius II and Ptolemy VI. When he returned to Syria in 145 BC he was defeated in battle by Ptolemy VI. Alexander I escaped and attempted to find safety among the Arabs, but was assassinated instead.
Pyrrhus was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period. He was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians, of the royal Aeacid house (from c. 297 BC), and later he became king of Epirus (r. 306–302, 297–272 BC). He was one of the strongest opponents of early Rome.
Hieron II was the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon. He was a former general of Pyrrhus of Epirus and an important figure of the First Punic War.
Nicomedes IV Philopator was the king of Bithynia from c. 94 BC to 74 BC. He was the first son and successor of Nicomedes III of Bithynia and Nysa. As one of his last acts as king of Bithynia, in 74 BC, Nicomedes IV bequeathed the entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome.
Lachares was one of the most influential leaders in Athens in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries B.C., after democracy had been re-established by Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was afterwards secretly gained over by Cassander, who incited him to aim at the acquisition of the tyranny, hoping to be able through his means to rule Athens.
Achaeus was a Seleucid general under Seleucus III and Antiochus III. He reclaimed much of western Asia Minor for Antiochus III in 223 BC before proclaiming himself king in 220 BC. He was besieged in Sardes before he was captured and executed by Antiochus III in late 214 BC.
Antiochus III the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 187 BC, ruled 222 – 187 BC) was a Seleucid Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
He ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BCE.
Antiochus VI Dionysus was the thirteenth king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 144 to c. 142 BC. This young son of Alexander I was proclaimed king by the Seleucid general Diodotus (Tryphon) in opposition to Demetrius II in 144 BC. His center of power was initially at Chalcis by Belus, but soon took control of Apamea. With the support of the disaffected military forces around that city, Antiochus VI and Tryphon forced Demetrius out of Antioch in 143 BC. The influence of Antiochus VI expanded further into Cilicia, Coele Syria, and Phoenicia in c. 142 BC, before he suddenly died under mysterious circumstances and Diodotus assumed the kingship in his own name.
Antiochus V Eupator ("Nobly-fathered") was the tenth king of the Seleucid Empire who ruled from 164 to 162 BC. Upon the death of Antiochus IV, his nine-year-old son, Antiochus V, was proclaimed king by the regent Lysias. In 164 BC, a struggle over the regency developed after the dying Antiochus IV named Philip, one of his Friends, as the regent for Antiochus V. Although Philip managed to take Antioch, he was killed by Lysias before he could take possession of the boy king. War almost broke out between Rome and Antiochus V in 162 BC, when a Roman legate charged with destroying the Seleucid fleet and its elephant corps was murdered. The situation was defused later tht year by the arrival of Demetrius I, a son of Seleucus IV, who captured Antiochus V and Lysias and ordered their deaths.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (play /ænˈtaɪ.əkəs ɛˈpɪfəniːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής, 'God Manifest'; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175
BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.
Antiochus VII Euergetes ("the Benefactor"), nicknamed Sidetes ("the Sidetan" after Side, a city in Asia Minor where he had once resided), was the king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 138 to 129 BC. After repressing the usurper Tryphon at the beginning of his reign, Antiochus VII consolidated his authority in Syria and Coele Syria before embarking on a grand campaign to restore the eastern territories of the empire that had fallen to the Arsacid Parthians. The king reclaimed Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Media, but was ambushed and killed with the bulk of his army during a Parthian-supported uprising in Media in the winter of 130–129 BC.
Antiochus II Theos ("the God") was the third king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling from 261 to 246 BC. He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC. He was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He successfully fought against Ptolemy II in the Second Syrian War (260–253 BC), expanding his territory in Asia Minor and Thrace.
Alexander II Zabinas (Greek Ἀλέξανδρoς Zαβίνας), ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian loss
of Mesopotamia to the Parthians. Zabinas was a false Seleucid who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII Sidetes, but in fact seems to have been the son of an Egyptian merchant
Antiochus Hierax ("the Hawk") was the younger brother of Seleucus II who was appointed viceroy of Asia Minor during the Third Syrian War (246-241 BC) between Seleucus II and Ptolemy III. In c. 242 BC Hierax proclaimed himself king and began the War of the Brothers (c. 241-236 BC) against Seleucus II. Hierax ultimately lost his kingdom and escaped to Thrace, where he was killed by Galatians in 227 BC.
Antiochus XIII Philadelphus ("Brother-loving"), nicknamed Asiaticus ("the Asiatic," referring to his sojourn in Asia Minor during the Armenian occupation of Syria) was the twenty-third and last king of the Seleucid Empire. He ruled a state that was little more than Antioch and its environs first from 69/8 to 67 BC and again briefly in 65/4 BC. Antiochus XIII was installed on the throne by the Roman general L. Licinius Lucullus after the withdrawal of Tigranes II of Armenia from Syria. By 67 BC, however, the king faced a popular revolt and was captured by the Emesan dynast Sampsiceramus. He was replaced as king by Philip II, a son of Philip I, but seems to have returned to power in 65/4 BC. He was deposed by Popmpey, who made Syria a Roman province.
Cleopatra Selene ("Moon") reigned jointly with her young son Antiochus XIII Philometor ("Mother-loving") in the environs of Damascus from c. 83/2 to sometime before 75 BC. Celopatra Selene was was a Ptolemaic princess who was married in sequence to Antiochus VIII, Antiochus IX, and Antiochus X. She had two sons by Antiochus X: Antiochus XIII and an unknown brother whose name may have been Seleucus. The extent of her power in Syria is very much unclear. In 75 BC, Cleopatra sent both her sons to Rome to press a claim to Ptolemaic Egypt, but this was denied. They seem to have been making their way home through Asia Minor when Tigranes II of Armenia invaded Syria and captured their mother in c. 69 BC. Cleopatra Selene was imprisoned at Seleucia (Zeugma) and ultimately killed.
Antiochus XII Dionysus Epiphanes Philopator Callinicus ("Dionysus Manifest, Father-loving, Nobly-victorious") was the twenty-second king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 87/6 to 83/2 BC. A brother of Seleucus VI, Demetrius III, Antiochus XI, and Philip I, Antiochus XII succeeded Demetrius III at Damascus after Demetrius III was carried off by the Parthians. He made no attempt to expand his power into northern Syria, but concentrated his energies on wars against the Nabataen Arabs and the Jewish priest-king, Alexander Jannaeus. Antiochus XII was killed while campaigning against the Nabataeans in 83/2 BC and his army left to die of hunger in the desert wasteland around the Dead Sea. Aretas III, the Nabataean king, was subsequently invited to rule Damascus.
Cleopatra Thea Eueteria ("the Goddess of the Fruitful Season") was a Seleucid queen who ruled alongside her various husbands and son between 150 and 121 BC. She was the daughter of Ptolemy VI who married Alexander I in 150 BC, but after the souring of the relationship between her father and the usurper she was married to Alexander's nemesis, the young Demetrius II in 145 BC. This marriage lasted until Demetrius was captured by the Parthians in 139 BC. When his brother, Antiochus VII, arrived in Syria in the following year Cleopatra married him to maintain her grip on power and to lend him legitimacy. She appears to have orchestrated the death of Demetrius II at the end of his failed second reign and may have ruled briefly in her own right in 125 BC before establishng a co-regency with her young son Antiochus VIII. This came to an end in 121 BC, when he forced her to drink a cup of poison that she had intended for him.
Antiochus IX Eusebes Philopator ("Pious, Father-loving"), nicknamed Cyzicenus ("the Cyzicene" after Cyzicus, a city in Asia Minor where he had been raised), was the seventeenth king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling between 114/3 and 95 BC. Although he managed to expel his half-brother, the reigning Antiochus VIII, in 114/3 BC, Antiochus IX gradually lost ground over the years that followed until he retained only a handful of cities in Cilicia, Phoenicia, and Coele Syria in 109 BC. When Antiochus VIII was assassinated in 96 BC, Antiochus IX siezed his former territory. In 95 BC, Seleucus VI, an avenging son of Antiochus VIII, invaded Syria and killed him.
Antiochus VIII Epiphanes ("God Manifest"), nicknamed Grypus ("Hook-nosed"), was the sixteenth king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling between 121/0 and 97/6 BC. The stability of the early years of his sole reign was shattered in 114/3 BC by the arrival of his half-brother, Antiochus IX, and the conflict that followed. Much territory and many cities frequently changed hands between the two until 109 BC, when Antiochus VIII had again regained much of his former possessions, leaving Antiochus IX only scattered cities. Antiochus VIII was assassinated by Heracleon, his war minister, in 96 BC, but his killer was no match for Antiochus IX, who briefly became sole ruler of the diminished Seleucid state.
Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus ("God Manifest, Brother-loving") was twentieth king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning in Syria only for part of 94/3 BC. He was the son of Antiochus VIII and Tryphaena and brother of Seleucus VI, Demetrius III, and Philip I. After the death of Seleucus VI (94 BC), Antiochus XI and Philip I jointly proclaimed themselves kings and destroyed Mopsus in revenge. In 94/3 BC, Antiochus XI marched against Antiochus X in Antioch but suffered defeat in battle. He managed to escape capture, but drowned while trying to cross the Orontes River.
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator ("Pious, Father-loving") was the nineteenth king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from c. 94 BC probably until c. 88 BC. Proclaiming himself king at Aradus, Antiochus X avenged his father, Antiochus IX, by driving Seleucus IV out of Syria in 94 BC. Antiochus X was almost immediately challenged by Seleucus' brother, Antiochus XI, but defeated him near Antioch. The subsequent history of his reign is obscure.
Antiochus, the son of Seleucus IV, was the eighth king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling briefly under the regency of his mother, Laodice IV, in the autumn of 175 BC. When his uncle, Antiochus IV, arrived in Syria in October/November of 175 BC he adopted the boy king and associated him in his own rule. This state of affairs survived only a few years until 170 BC, when Antiochus IV ordered the execution of his nephew.
Demetrius II Theos Nicator ("the God [and] Victor") was the twelfth king of the Seleucid Empire who experienced two distinct periods of rule. His first reign took place between 146 and 138 BC. In 146 BC, at the age of thirteen, Demetrius II arrived in Syria with a mercenary army intent on overthrowing his father's killer, Alexander I. Demetrius II was successful in this endeavor but alienated much of Syria by quelling riots in Antioch through massacre and by preferring foreign mercenaries to the established Seleucid army. A Seleucid commander named Diodotus proclaimed Antiochus VI, the young son of Alexander I, as rival king and forced Demetrius II out of Antioch. Unable to crush his enemies in Syria and faced with the advance of the Arsacid Parthians into Babylonia, Demetrius II marched to war against the Parthian king Mithradates I. Despite early successes, Demetrius II was defeated and captured in 139 BC. He subsequently lived in honorable captivity at the Parthian court until 129 BC, when he was released. The freed king returned to Antioch and resumed the great unpopularity that had plagued his first reign. His involvement in the conflict between Cleopatra II and Ptolemy VII of Egypt caused the latter to raise a pretender, Alexander II, against him. Demetrius II was defeated near Damascus in 125 BC. He fled to his wife, Cleopatra Thea, at Ptolemais (Ake), but she barred the doors against him. Demetrius II then attempted to find safety at Tyre, but he was killed by the city guards, perhaps on Cleopatra's orders.
Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor") (satrap, 321–305 BC; king, 305–281 BC) was the founder of the Seleucid Empire. He had served as an infantry commander under Alexander the Great and became chiliarch (i.e. vizier) to Perdiccas at the Settlement of Babylon (323 BC). In 321 BC, after the death of Perdiccas he was appointed satrap (governor) of Babylonia. He was driven out by Antigonus Monophthalmus in 315 BC, but managed to return and hold the satrapy in 312. Seleucus I assumed the royal title in 305 BC and embarked upon a great eastern campaign that created a Seleucid Empire stretching from Babylonia and Syria to the borders of India. He played a pivotal role in the defeat and death of Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus (301 BC). Seleucus I expanded his empire into Asia Minor after defeating and killing Lysimachus, the king of Thrace who had claimed Antigonus' territories in Asia Minor, at the Battle of Corupedium (281 BC). Seleucus I was assassinated later in 281 BC as he advanced to take possession of Thrace.
Seleucus II Callinicus ("Nobly Victorious"), nicknamed Pogon ("the Beard") was the fourth king of the Seleucid Empire. He succeeded his father, Antiochus II in 246 BC and reigned until 225 BC. His reign saw many challenges to the territorial integrity of the empire. The king was ineffective in opposing Ptolemy III during the Third Syrian War (246-241 BC) and suffered invasion and the loss of possessions in Syria, Asia Minor, and Thrace. These problems were compounded by his brother, Antiochus Hierax, who established an independent kingdom in Asia Minor and whom Seleucus II was unable to evict during the disastrous War of the Brothers (c. 241-236 BC). Turning from his failures in the West, in 230-227 BC, Seleucus II marched East to oppose the invading Arsacid Parthians and restore Seleucid authority in the rogue satrapy (province) of Bactria. What limited successes he enjoyed in this endeavor were fleeting. In 225 BC he was thrown from his horse and died from his injuries.
Demetrius I Soter ("the Savior") was the eleventh king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling from 162 to 150 BC. He was sent to Rome as a hostage for the good behavior of his uncle, Antiochus IV, but escaped back to Syria in 162 BC. After disposing of Antiochus V and the regent Lysias, Demetrius I put down the usurpation of Timarchus in 160 BC and successfully fought against the Maccabean Jewish rebels in southern Coele Syria. He further upset the balance of power in Asia Minor by dethroning Ariarathes V of Cappadocia. His many enemies advanced the claims of Alexander I, a supposed son of Antiochus IV, as rightful Seleucid king in 152 BC. After several years of conflict between the two for control of Syria, Demetrius was killed in battle in 150 BC.
Demetrius III Philopator Soter ("Father-loving Savior"), nicknamed Eucaerus ("the Well-timed"), was the twenty-first king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling in Damascus from 97/6 to 88/7 BC. A brother of Seleucus VI, Antiochus XI, and Philip I, Demetrius III was installed in Damascus by Ptolemy IX as a means of denying the city to both Antiochus IX and the Nabatean Arabs. He fought an unsuccessful war against the Hasmonean Jewish king, Alexander Jannaeus, but made inroads into northern Syria. In 88 BC, Demetrius III besieged Philip I, in Beroea. The siege was abruptly lifted when Demetrius was captured by Philip's Parthian allies. He died in captivity shortly thereafter.
Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphus ("God Manifest, Brother-loving") was the twenty-second king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from c. 94/3 to perhaps 76/5 BC. A brother of Seleucus VI, Antiochus XI, and Demetrius III, Philip I ruled jointly with Antiochus XI in Cilicia in 94/3 BC. By 94/3 BC, Antiochus XI was dead and Philip I controlled parts of northern Syria. He was besieged at Beroea by Demetrius III in 88/7 BC, but the siege was lifted when Demetrius was captured by Philip's Parthian allies. Philip I subsequently ruled from Antioch and briefly managed to sieze Damascus from Antiochus XII. The ancient sources are unclear about the fate of Philip I, but he seems to have died by 76/5 BC.
Seleucus III Soter ("the Savior"), nicknamed Ceraunus ("the Thunderbolt") was the fifth king of the Seleucid Empire. He was named Alexander at birth but assumed the dynastic name Seleucus when he succeeded his father Seleucus II in 225 BC. He was assassinated in 233 BC while campaigning to regain Asia Minor from Attalus I of Pergamum.
Philetaerus was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamum. In 301 BC, Lysimachus appointed him to guard a treasury of 9,000 talents of silver at Pergamum. Amid the dynastic turmoil in Lysimachus' kingdom in 281 BC, Philetaerus invited Seleucus I to kill his master and take possession of the kingdom. After the deaths of Lysimachus and Seleucus I, he became an increasingly independent dynast. He was a eunuch and had no children of his own, adopting his nephew Eumenes I as his successor.
Molon was appointed Seleucid strategos (military governor) of Media by Antiochus III in 223 BC, but a year later revolted along with his brother Alexander, the strategos of Persis, and a dynast of Media Atropatene. Molon claimed the title of king and ruled Media, Persis, and Babylonia as a breakaway kingdom from 222 BC to 220 BC. When Antiochus III at last defeated him in 220 BC, Molon and his brother commited suicide.
Tryphon ("Magnificent") was the pseudonym taken by the Seleucid commander Diodotus after he calimed the kingship at the death of Antiochus VI (c. 142 BC). He ruled in opposition to both Demetrius II and Antiochus VII between c. 142 and 138 BC. His authority was not recognized in Babylon, but he held Antioch and Apamea in Syria, as well as much of Phoenicia and Coele Syria. In 143/2. He struck heavy blows against both the Jews of Judaea and the generals of Demetrius II. However, in 138 BC, Antiochus VII drove him out of Syria and hounded him through Phoenicia. Tryphon was besieged first at Dora and then at Apamea before he was captured and killed in 138/7 BC.
Ariarathes VII Philometor ("Mother-loving") ruled the kingdom of Cappadocia from c. 116 to 100 BC. This young son of Ariarathes VI reigned with his mother, Laodice, as regent--a situation that led to instability. In c. 105 BC, Nicomedes III of Bithynia invaded Cappadocia and married Laodice in an attempt to gain the regency over Ariarathes VII. He and Laodice were driven out by Mithradates VI of Pontus, who placed Ariarathes VII on the throne as sole ruler of Cappadocia. However, like his father, Ariarathes VII came to resent Pontic influence. He riased an army against Mithradates VI, but was assassinated when he accepted and invitation to a conference with the Pontic king.
Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator ("God Manifest, Victor") was the eighteenth king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling from 96 to 94 BC. In 96 BC, Seleucus VI defeated and killed his uncle, Antiochus IX, in battle, but managed to hold Antioch and Syria only briefly before he was driven out by Antiochus X, the son of Antiochus IX, in the following year. Seleucus VI fled to Mopsuestia where he attempted to raise a new army, but his financial exactions sparked rebellion in the city and he was burned alive by the mob in 94 BC.
Ariarathes VI Epiphanes Philopator ("God Manifest, Father-loving") ruled the kingdom of Cappadocia between c. 130 and 116 BC. He was the youngest of the six sons of Ariarates V and Nysa and the only one to survive the plotting of his murderous mother. He swept to power during a popular uprising that overthrew Nysa, but he was a weak ruler and became a virtual puppet of Mithradates V of Pontus. As he grew older, he was increasingly disinclined to accept Pontic interference in the affairs of his kingdom. He was subsequently assassinated in 116 BC by a Cappadocian noble at the instigation of Mithradates VI of Pontus.
Seleucus IV Philopator ("Father-loving") was the eldest son of Antiochus III and succeeded him as the seventh king of the Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 187 to 175 BC, during which time he formed alliances in Asia Minor and Macedon in order to restore Seleucid influence curtailed by the Peace of Apamea. He was assassinated by his chief minister, Heliodorus, in 175 BC.
Ariarathes IX Eusebes Philopator ("Pious, Father-loving"), the nine-year-old son of Mithradates VI of Pontus, was placed on the throne of Cappadocia in c. 100 BC to serve as his father's puppet. He was deeply unpopular with the Cappadocians and was soon driven out by Ariarathes VIII. The superior forces of Mithradates VI restored Ariarathes IX to power in c. 95 BC, only to have him immediately deposed by the Romans. He was restored several times between 95 and 85 BC in opposition to the Roman-supported Ariobarzanes I. Mithradates VI removed Ariarathes IX from the Cappadocian throne in 85 BC under the peace terms that ended the First Mithradatic War (89-85 BC).
Ariarathes VIII Eusebes Epiphanes ("Pious, God Manifest") claimed the kingship in Cappadocia between c. 100 and 95 BC. This son of Ariarathes VI was invited by the Cappadocians to overthrow the deeply unpopular Ariarathes IX. He raised an army to press his claims to the throne, but was ultimately defeated in battle by Ariarathes IX's father, Mithradates VI of Pontus. Ariarathes VIII then fled Cappadocia and died in exile shortly thereafter.
Timarchus was appointed satrap (governor) of Media by Antiochus IV in c. 175 BC. When the king died in 164 BC, he became a virtually independent ruler in his satrapy. Timarchus actively opposed Demetrius I and in 162 BC proclaimed himself as a rival king with the recognition of Rome. Although he managed to expand his kingdom into Babylonia, Timarchus was defeated and killed by Demetrius I in 161 BC.
The young Antiochus Epiphanes ("God Manifest") was an obscure Seleucid child-king who appears on Antioch coins struck in 128 B.C. It is unclear whether coins with his portrait were intended to represent an exceptionally juvenile Antiochus VIII or another ephemeral king.
Ptolemy I Soter I (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e. Ptolemy (pronounced /ˈtɒləmi/) the Savior), also known as Ptolemy Lagides, c. 367
BC – c. 283 BC, was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323 BC – 283 BC) and founder of both the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In
305/4 BC he took the title of pharaoh.
Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios ("Friend of the Romans") alternated with Ariarathes IX as ruler of Cappadocia between 95 and 85 BC. He was usually deposed by Tigranes II of Armenia as an ally of Mithradates VI of Pontus only to be restored by Roman generals. Between 83 and 67 BC he was also driven out of Cappadocia by the Armenian and Pontic kings. Ariobarzanes I was restored by the Romans for the last time in 66 BC. Three years later he abdicated in favor of his son, Ariobarzanes II.
Cleopatra I Syra was a princess of the Seleucid Empire, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy V of Egypt, and regent of Egypt during the minority of their son, Ptolemy VI, from her husband’s death in 180 BC until her own death in 176 BC.
Arsinoë II (316 BC – unknown date between July 270 and 260 BC) was a Ptolemaic Queen and co-regent of Ancient Egypt. She was Queen of Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia by marriage to King Lysimachus, and queen and co-ruler of Egypt with her brother-husband Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
Diodotus I (285-239 BC) was a Seleucid satrap of Bactria who rebelled after the death of Antiochus II. In c. 255 or 246 BC he proclaimed himself an independent king in Bactria. Much of his reign was spent opposing the invading Parthians under their king, Arsaces I.
Diodotus II (c. 252 BC – c. 223 BC) succeeded his father Diodotus I in 239 BC. An alliance with the Parthians allowed Diodotus II to successfully defend his kingdom against Seleucus II in c. 239 BC, but in c. 223 BC he was killed by Euthydemus (I), a usurping governor of Sogdiana.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II ("Ptolemy the Benefactor"; c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon ("the Fat"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, ruling from 169 to 164 B.C. with siblings Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II and a second time from 144 to 132/1 and again from 126 to 116.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr, reigned 221–205 BCE), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt was the fourth
Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. Under the reign of Ptolemy IV, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator ("Ptolemy the New Beloved of his Father") was an Egyptian king of the Ptolemaic period. His reign is controversial, and it is possible that he did not reign at all, but was only granted royal dignity posthumously.