Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae. Appears with title of hegemon on coins from Philippopolis in Thrace during the reign of Antoninus Pius (AD 138-161) between AD 145 and 153. Consul suffectus in AD 153. Later, in AD 159/160 he was administering Moesia superior. Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) pp. 164-165 no. 23; PIR VI² (1998) no. 822 s. v. Pontius; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 796.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Moesia. He appears by name only on coins from Marcianopolis/Moesia inferior during the reign of Gordianus III and Tranquillina AD 241-244.
Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) p. 144 no. 134; PIR VI² (1998) 428 no. 1015 s. v. Prosius; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) 838.
Margiana is a historical region centred on the oasis of Merv and was a minor satrapy within the Achaemenid satrapy of Bactria, and a province within its successors, the Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian empires.
Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire. The Sogdian states, although never politically united, were centred on the main city of Samarkand. Sogdiana lay north of Bactria, east of Khwarezm, and southeast of Kangju between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr Darya), embracing the fertile valley of the Zeravshan (ancient Polytimetus).
Drangiana was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around Hamun Lake, wetlands in endorheic Sistan Basin on the Iran-Afghan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in what is nowadays southwestern region of Afghanistan.
The Seminar of Ancient History holds more than 12,000 coins of the Roman Imperial period and Late Antiquity. Their majority originates from a collection which Herbert Nesselhaus, the former Professor of Ancient History, was able to purchase in 1961 from the Archbishopric of Freiburg. The collection had found a temporary home there some twenty years earlier: Between 1900 and 1926 the Geheimer Oberbaurat Heinrich Wefels from Erlangen built a collection of c. 14,000 coins, which he had acquired at various auctions. About 10,300 are coins of Roman emperors and an additional 2,400 represent provincial issues. Wefels focussed on the Imperial period, but did add both earlier and later coinages, too. About 950 Byzantine coins, 360 Roman Republican ones, 220 Greek issues, and 22 Celic coins bear witness to these secondary areas of interest. Although the Seminar für Alte Geschichte is not any longer able to purchase additional coins, its collection was augmented through generous donations by Herbert A. Cahn, Otto Feld and Gerold Walser. Today the collection is complemented by a scientific numismatic library, which again originates in the collector Heinrich Wefels.
The Seminar für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik of Heidelberg University together with the Institut Klassische Archäologie holds a collection of more than 4,000 Greek and Roman coins. The collection dates back to Georg Friedrich Kreutzer (1771-1858) and grew with later purchases and donations. From the beginning, the collection was conceived to be used for teaching purposes, highlighting the history of coinage from its origins in ancient Greece down to Late Antiquity.
C. Papius C.f. Mutilus, from Samnitian family, was a general in the Social War. He issued coins with his name sometimes with the additional title of imperator (90-88 BC). Lit.: N. K. Rutter, Historia Numorum Italy (2001) p. 57; Der Neue Pauly IX (2000) 295 s. v. Papius no. I 4 (K.-L. Elvers).
An individual who issued coins at the ancient city of Maroneia, 365-330s BC. See S. Psoma, The coins of Maroneia and the classical city at Molyvoti. A contribution to the history of Aegean Thrace (Athens, 2008), p.173. (Cf. also E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Maroneia (Berlin, 1987), pp. 44-45 who dates 386/385-348/347 BC and writes Aristoles). W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 360.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Thrace c. AD 142-144.
Consul suffectus in AD 148. His name appears on coins of Philippopolis and Perinthos partially with the title of Presbeutes, and in Nikopolis as Hegemon.
Lit.: PIR² A 883; B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 164 no. 21; ibid., Addenda I (2011) no. 22:021.
Legatus augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae under Antoninus Pius during AD 150ies.
He appears with his title of Hegemon on coins of Philippopolis.
Lit.: B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 166 no. 24; ibid. Addenda (2011) no. 22:024; PIR² G 50.
The Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) owns roughly 30.000 coins and medals, ranging from Greek and Roman specimens to modern currencies. These originate from various sources, such as the collections of Gerlach, Heerdegen, Luthart, Pick, Sinugowitz, Varnhagen, Voit von Salzburg, Will, Zucker, as well as the items of the “Ilse und Ulrich Zwicker Stiftung”. The Will collection, consisting of about 12.000 pieces, and the Zwicker foundation with its approx. 11.000 objects, make roughly two thirds of the whole lot. The eldest collection was composed by Friedrich Voit von Salzburg between 1845 and 1858. The most recent accession, the objects of the “Ilse und Ulrich Zwicker Stiftung”, took place at the beginning of this century. The chronological and regional emphasis of the coins differs by each collection with a particular focus on antiquity, from the Greek and Romans until the end of the Byzantine times.
The Ashmolean is the University of Oxford’s museum of art and archaeology, founded in 1683. The Numismatic collections are kept in the Heberden Coin Room, which houses a systematic and comprehensive collection of some three hundred thousand coins and medals with particular strengths in the fields of Greek, Roman, Celtic, Byzantine, Medieval, Islamic, Indian, and Chinese coinages. It also holds collections of paper money, tokens, jetons, and commemorative and art medals.
The Numismatic Collection of History Institute of the Faculty of History of the Ruhr-University Bochum consists of more than 3,400 objects covering the whole of Antiquity, from the Archaic Age of Greece to the Byzantine period. In addition, it includes a small Late Mediaeval hoard, which was discovered in Querenburg in 1966 in the course of the construction of the University.
The coin collection of the Archaelogical Museum of Münster University consists of more than 5,500 objects covering all historical periods in antiquity: Greek coins (of the archaic, classical and hellenistic periods), coins of the Roman Republic and empire, Civic and provincial coins of the Imperial period, and Byzantine ones.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore during the reign of the emperor Hadrian. He appears as Presbeutes and Antistrategos on coins of Perinthus and Bizye.
Lit.: E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Perinthos (1965) 153; Y. Youroukova, Die Münzprägung von Bizye (1981) 9. 50; B. E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum I (1984) 163-164 no. 18; ibid., I Addendum (2011) 22:018; PIR² M 43 (reads Maecilius Nepos); W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (Wien, 2009) p. 706.
An individual who issued coins at the ancient city of Maroneia, 480-450 BC. See S. Psoma, The coins of Maroneia and the classical city at Molyvoti. A contribution to the history of Aegean Thrace (Athens, 2008), p. 164. 166. (Cf. also E. Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Maroneia (Berlin, 1987), p. 122 who dates 495-448 BC.)
The Numismatic Collection of the Professorship for Ancient History at the University of Passau contains almost 380 coins, covering nearly the whole of ancient Numismatic History, from the Archaic Age of Greece to Late Antiquity and the Byzantine Age, with a focus on the coins of the Roman emperors.
The beginning of the collection is connected with Prof. Dr. H. Wolff, who was holder of the chair for Ancient History from 1980 to 2006. His successor, Prof. Dr. O. Stoll (since 2007), was able to purchase and acquire additional coins, so that the collection reached its contemporary content in 2015.
The Professorship is – due to missing financial aid by the university – not able to purchase additional coins.
The Antigonid Dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed"), ruling over Macedonia and surrounding areas from about 306 to 168 B.C.
Consul suffectus in AD 19. Proconsul Provinciae Asiae from mid AD 28 to mid AD 36. His name appears on coins of Pergamum in Mysia and Smyrna in Ionia.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Syriae between AD 39 and 42.
Lit.: PIR² P 269; P. R. Franke, Publius Petronius und L. Aelius Seianus, Archäologischer Anzeiger 83, 1969, 474 pp; G. R. Stumpf, Numismatische Studien zur Chronologie der römischen Statthalter in Kleinasien (122 v. Chr.-163 n. Chr.) (1991) pp. 120-122.
Consul suffectus in AD 99. Proconsul of Bithynia and Pontus AD 101/102. His name and title (in Greek) appear on coin issued on behalf of the Koinon of Bithynia.
Lit.: PIR² I 205; G. Stumpf, Numismatische Studien zur Chronologie der römischen Statthalter in Kleinasien 122 v. Chr.-163 n. Chr. (1991) pp. 278-280; W. Leschhorn, Lexikon der Aufschriften auf griechischen Münzen II (2009) p. 405.
The Coin cabinet in the Martin von Wagner Museum (Würzburg University Museum).
The Julius-Maximilians-University of Würzburg (JMU) holds about 1.200 coins, medals and para-numismatic objects from the 7th BCE to modern times with a focus on Greek and Roman coins. Due to the near complete destruction in World War II the coin cabinet in the Martin von Wagner Museum (MvW) is mainly build by donations after 1945 and by a few selected acquisitions. The most important of those donations is the Coll. H. Wellhöfer – c. 400 classical Greek coins with an emphasis on iconography and aesthetics.
Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Cappadokia and Galatia from autumn AD 94 to mid AD 100. Consul suffectus in AD 94.
On provincial coins he sometimes bears the Greek titles of Antistrategos and Presbeutes.
Lit.: PIR² P 530; G. R. Stumpf, Numismatische Studien zur Chronologie der römischen Statthalter in Kleinasien (122 v. Chr.-163 n. Chr.) (1991) pp. 239-258.
With mythological roots tying it to the Greek descendants of Aeacus, including Peleus and Achilles, the dynasty coalesced into a historic line of Molossian kings of Epirus beginning with Admetus (490 B.C.) and ending with Deidamia (died 233 B.C.), daughter of Pyrrhus II.
The Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. Diodotus, the satrap of Bactria (and probably the surrounding provinces) founded the Bactrian Kingdom when he seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC and became King Diodotus I of Bactria.
The Ptolemaic dynasty, sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Atropatene was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
The Kingdom of Cappadocia was a Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom centered in the historical region of Cappadocia in Asia Minor. It developed from the former Achaemenid satrapy of Cappadocia, and it was founded by its last satrap, Ariarathes (later Ariarathes I). Throughout its history, it was ruled by three families in succession; the House of Ariarathes (331-96 BC), the House of Ariobarzanes (96 BC-36 BC), and lastly that of Archelaus (36 BC-17 AD). In 17 AD, following the death of Archelaus, during the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius (14-37), the kingdom was incorporated as a Roman province.
Epirus was an ancient Greek state, located in the geographical region of Epirus in the western Balkans. The homeland of the ancient Epirotes was bordered by the Aetolian League to the south, Thessaly and Macedonia to the east, and Illyrian tribes to the north.
The Kingdom of Bithynia was formed within the historical region of Bithynia, in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. Founded by the late 4th century B.C., it rose to prominence among the lesser kingdoms of Anatolia under the reign of Nicomedes I (c. 278 - 255 B.C.). The kingdom was finally bequeathed to the Roman Republic in 74 B.C. by Nicomedes IV.
The Mithridatic dynasty, also known as the Pontic dynasty, was a hereditary dynasty of Persian origin, founded by Mithridates I Ktistes (Mithridates III of Cius) in 281 BC. The origins of the dynasty were located in the highest circles of the ruling Persian nobility in Cius.
The Ariarathid Dynasty was founded by Ariarathes I, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Cappadocia (331 B.C.). It ended with the reign of Ariarathes IX in 95 B.C., when he was succeeded by Ariobarzanes I.
Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties.
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Ptolemaic Empire was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty, which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty. The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BCE. It reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians. The exact original boundaries of Paeonia, like the early history of its inhabitants, are obscure, but it is known that it was located immediately north of ancient Macedonia (which corresponded roughly to the modern Greek region of Macedonia), and to the south-east of Dardania (which was similar to modern-day Kosovo); in the east were the Thracian mountains, and in the west, the Illyrians.
The foundation of the Kingdom of Pergamum was laid when Philetaerus took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC
Eumenes I was dynast of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC. He was the son of Eumenes, the brother of Philetaerus, the founder of the Attalid dynasty, and Satyra, daughter of Poseidonius. As he had no children, Philetaerus adopted Eumenes to become his heir.
Alexander I Theopator Euergetes ("Divinely-fathered Benefactor"), nicknamed Balas ("Lord"), was the twelfth king of the Seleucid Empire, ruling from 152 to 145 BC. Alexander I was a supposed son of Antiochus IV supported by Attalus II of Pergamum and Ptolemy VI of Egypt as a rival claimant to the Seleucid throne against Demetrius I. In 152 BC, Alexander I arrived at Ptolemais (Ake) and established his base there. He controled Apamea by 152/1 BC and in 150 BC defeated and killed Demetrius I. Shortly thereafter, Alexander I married Cleopatra Thea, the daughter of Ptolemy VI in order to seal an alliance with her father. Things began to fall apart in 148 and 147 BC, when Susa and Media were lost to Parthian and local kings and Demetrius II arrived in Syria to avenge his father, Demetrius I. Unfortunately, Alexander I had alienated his father-in-law by plotting against him, and therefore Ptolemy VI supported Demetrius II. Alexander I was forced to flee to Cilicia, where he raised an army to wage war against Demetrius II and Ptolemy VI. When he returned to Syria in 145 BC he was defeated in battle by Ptolemy VI. Alexander I escaped and attempted to find safety among the Arabs, but was assassinated instead.
Pyrrhus was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period. He was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians, of the royal Aeacid house (from c. 297 BC), and later he became king of Epirus (r. 306–302, 297–272 BC). He was one of the strongest opponents of early Rome.
Hieron II was the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon. He was a former general of Pyrrhus of Epirus and an important figure of the First Punic War.
Nicomedes IV Philopator was the king of Bithynia from c. 94 BC to 74 BC. He was the first son and successor of Nicomedes III of Bithynia and Nysa. As one of his last acts as king of Bithynia, in 74 BC, Nicomedes IV bequeathed the entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome.
Lachares was one of the most influential leaders in Athens in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries B.C., after democracy had been re-established by Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was afterwards secretly gained over by Cassander, who incited him to aim at the acquisition of the tyranny, hoping to be able through his means to rule Athens.
Achaeus was a Seleucid general under Seleucus III and Antiochus III. He reclaimed much of western Asia Minor for Antiochus III in 223 BC before proclaiming himself king in 220 BC. He was besieged in Sardes before he was captured and executed by Antiochus III in late 214 BC.
Antiochus III the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 187 BC, ruled 222 – 187 BC) was a Seleucid Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
He ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BCE.
Antiochus VI Dionysus was the thirteenth king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 144 to c. 142 BC. This young son of Alexander I was proclaimed king by the Seleucid general Diodotus (Tryphon) in opposition to Demetrius II in 144 BC. His center of power was initially at Chalcis by Belus, but soon took control of Apamea. With the support of the disaffected military forces around that city, Antiochus VI and Tryphon forced Demetrius out of Antioch in 143 BC. The influence of Antiochus VI expanded further into Cilicia, Coele Syria, and Phoenicia in c. 142 BC, before he suddenly died under mysterious circumstances and Diodotus assumed the kingship in his own name.
Antiochus V Eupator ("Nobly-fathered") was the tenth king of the Seleucid Empire who ruled from 164 to 162 BC. Upon the death of Antiochus IV, his nine-year-old son, Antiochus V, was proclaimed king by the regent Lysias. In 164 BC, a struggle over the regency developed after the dying Antiochus IV named Philip, one of his Friends, as the regent for Antiochus V. Although Philip managed to take Antioch, he was killed by Lysias before he could take possession of the boy king. War almost broke out between Rome and Antiochus V in 162 BC, when a Roman legate charged with destroying the Seleucid fleet and its elephant corps was murdered. The situation was defused later tht year by the arrival of Demetrius I, a son of Seleucus IV, who captured Antiochus V and Lysias and ordered their deaths.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (play /ænˈtaɪ.əkəs ɛˈpɪfəniːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής, 'God Manifest'; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175
BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.
Antiochus VII Euergetes ("the Benefactor"), nicknamed Sidetes ("the Sidetan" after Side, a city in Asia Minor where he had once resided), was the king of the Seleucid Empire, reigning from 138 to 129 BC. After repressing the usurper Tryphon at the beginning of his reign, Antiochus VII consolidated his authority in Syria and Coele Syria before embarking on a grand campaign to restore the eastern territories of the empire that had fallen to the Arsacid Parthians. The king reclaimed Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Media, but was ambushed and killed with the bulk of his army during a Parthian-supported uprising in Media in the winter of 130–129 BC.