An Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian. Its capital was Sardis.
Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Latin: Provincia Macedoniae, Greek: Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved. The province incorporated the former kingdom of Macedonia with the addition of Epirus, Thessaly, and parts of Illyria, Paeonia and Thrace. This created a much larger administrative area, to which the name of 'Macedonia' was still applied.
Magnesia or Magnesia on the Maeander (Ancient Greek: Μαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Μαιάνδρῳ or Μαγνησία ἡ ἐπὶ Μαιάνδρῳ; Latin: Magnḗsĭa ad Mæándrum) was an ancient Greek city in Ionia, considerable in size, at an important location commercially and strategically in the triangle of Priene, Ephesus and Tralles.
The Massylii or Maesulians were a Berber federation of tribes in eastern Numidia, which was formed by an amalgamation of smaller tribes during the 4th century BC. They were ruled by a king. On their loosely defined western frontier were the powerful Masaesyli. To their east, lay the territory of the rich and powerful Carthaginian Republic. After the Roman victory in the Second Punic War, the independent kingdoms of the Massylii and Masaesyli were combined into a unified Kingdom of Numidia.
The Mamertines (Latin: Mamertini, "sons of Mars", Greek: Μαμερτῖνοι) were mercenaries of Italian origin who had been hired from their home in Campania by Agathocles (361 – 289 BC), Tyrant of Syracuse and self-proclaimed King of Sicily.
The Kingdom of Mauritania comprised primarily the ethnic Mauri (Moors) in northwest Africa. The kingdom ruled autonomously at least as early at 225 B.C. Mauritania became a client-state of Rome in the second century B.C. and was later annexed in A.D. 44 under Claudius and split into two Roman provinces.
Mathura is an ancient city in northern India who had been ruled an independent city-state by the Indo-Scythians after their invasion of the region around 60 B.C. It had previously been under the dominion of Indian kings and the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
The Nabataean Kingdom (Arabic: المملكة النبطية, romanized: al-Mamlakah an-Nabaṭiyyah), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity. The Nabataean Kingdom controlled much of the trade routes of the region, amassing large wealth and drawing the envy of its neighbors. It stretched south along the Red Sea coast into the Hejaz, up as far north as Damascus, which it controlled for a short period (85–71 BC). Nabataea remained independent from the 4th century BC until it was annexed in AD 106 by the Roman Empire, which renamed it Arabia Petraea.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Latin: Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD. It consisted mainly of present-day Bulgaria, spreading to parts of Southeastern Romania (Northern Dobruja), parts of Northern Greece and parts of modern-day European Turkey.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians. The exact original boundaries of Paeonia, like the early history of its inhabitants, are obscure, but it is known that it was located immediately north of ancient Macedonia (which corresponded roughly to the modern Greek region of Macedonia), and to the south-east of Dardania (which was similar to modern-day Kosovo); in the east were the Thracian mountains, and in the west, the Illyrians.
An ancient Eastern Arabian kingdom that existed at the modern city of Mleiha, in the United Arab Emirates. Archaeological remains indicate a fortified compound was founded here by 300 B.C. Macedonian-style coinage unearthed at Ed-Dur dates back to Alexander the Great. Hundreds of coins were found both there and at Mleiha featuring a head of Heracles and a seated Zeus on the obverse, and bearing the name of Abi'el in Aramaic. These coins match moulds found at Mleiha which, together with finds of slag at the site, suggests the existence of a metallurgical centre.
Pontic Olbia (Ancient Greek: Ὀλβία Ποντική, Ukrainian: Ольвія) or simply Olbia is an an ancient Greek city on the shore of the Southern Bug estuary (Hypanis or Ὕπανις,) in Ukraine, near village of Parutyne.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa, was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by the Abgarid dynasty of Arab origin. Generally allied with the Parthians, the Kingdom of Osroene enjoyed semi-autonomy to complete independence from the years of 132 BC to AD 214.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and small part of Libya in the Maghreb. The polity was originally divided between Massylii in the east and Masaesyli in the west. During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), Masinissa, king of the Massylii, defeated Syphax of the Masaesyli to unify Numidia into one kingdom.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran. It was formed in the mid-3rd century B.C. when Arsaces I rebelled against the Seleucid Empire. The Parthians were Rome's chief rival in the east for three centuries until the empire's eventual collapse in A.D. 224 when Shapur of Persis revolted and formed a new Sasanian dynasty in the Middle East and Persia.
Pherae (Greek: Φεραί) was a city and polis (city-state) in southeastern Ancient Thessaly. One of the oldest Thessalian cities, it was located in the southeast corner of Pelasgiotis. According to Strabo, it was near Lake Boebeïs 90 stadia from Pagasae, its harbor on the Gulf of Pagasae (Geography 9.5). The site is in the modern community of Velestino.
The foundation of the Kingdom of Pergamum was laid when Philetaerus took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC
The Ptolemaic Empire was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty, which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty. The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BCE. It reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia.
Qataban or Katabania was an ancient Yemeni kingdom. Its heartland was located in the Baihan valley. Like some other Southern Arabian kingdoms it gained great wealth from the trade of frankincense and myrrh, incenses which were burned at altars. The capital of Qataban was named Timna and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba and Ma'in. The chief deity of the Qatabanians was 'Amm, or "Uncle" and the people called themselves the "children of Amm".
Sapaeans, Sapaei or Sapaioi (Ancient Greek, "Σαπαίοι") were a Thracian tribe close to the Greek city of Abdera. One of their kings was named Abrupolis and had allied himself with the Romans. They ruled Thrace after the Odrysians until its incorporation by the Roman Empire as a province.
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The kingdom of Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, romanized: Mikra Skythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, roughly corresponding to today's Dobruja, with a part in Romania, and a part in Bulgaria.
The Kingdom of Sophene was an ancient Armenian kingdom. Founded around the 3rd century BC the kingdom maintained independence until around 90 BC when Tigranes the Great conquered the territories as part of his empire. An offshoot of this kingdom was the Kingdom of Commagene, formed when the Seleucids detached Commagene from Sophene.
Telmessos or Telmessus was the largest city in Lycia, near the Carian border. Telmessus was a member of the Delian League in the 5th century BC. It was taken by Alexander in 334 BC, and subsequently remained semi-independent as a client-state of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms until its absorption into a Roman province.
Soli or Soloi (Greek: Σόλοι) is an ancient Greek city in the island of Cyprus, located southwest of Morphou (Guzelyurt), and on the coast in the gulf of Morphou and dates back to about the 6th century BC.
Termera (Ancient Greek: Τερμερα or τὰ Τέρμερα), also known as Termerum or Termeron (Τερμερον), was a maritime town of ancient Caria on the south coast of the peninsula of Halicarnassus, near Cape Termerium.
Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for the State of Judah/Jews), or simply Yehud, was an autonomous state of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, roughly equivalent to the older kingdom of Judah but covering a smaller area, within the satrapy of Eber-Nari. It was later incorporated into the Hellenistic provinces of Alexander the Great and his successors.
Tylis (Greek: Τύλις) or Tyle was a short-lived Balkan Kingdom mentioned by Polybius that was founded by Celts led by Comontorius in the 3rd century BC. Following their invasion of Thrace and Greece in 279 BC, the Gauls were defeated by the Macedonian king Antigonus II Gonatas in the Battle of Lysimachia in 277 BC, after which they turned inland to Thrace and founded their kingdom at Tylis. It was located near the eastern edge of the Haemus (Balkan) Mountains in what is now eastern Bulgaria.
Chalcis was a small ancient Iturean majority kingdom situated in the Beqaa Valley, named for and originally based from the city of the same name. The ancient city of Chalcis (a.k.a. Chalcis sub Libanum, Chalcis of Coele-Syria was located midway between Berytus and Damascus. It was founded by Ptolemaeus, son of Menneus, an Ituraean dynast in about 85 B.C. as Seleucid influence diminished, but it became a Roman client-state ca. 60 B.C. under Pompey. It was absorbed into the Roman province of Syria in A.D. 92.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt (343-332 BC).
The Vemaka were an ancient Indian tribe, located north of the larger tribe of the Kuninda in northern India. Their coinage employs the same characteristics of those of the Indo-Greek king, Apollodotus II.
Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūrauš; Kourosh; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš; Hebrew: כורש, Modern: Kōréš, Tiberian: Kōréš; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia.
Artaxerxes I (Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaça,"whose rule (xšaça < *xšaϑram) is through arta ("truth"); Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא, Modern: ʾArtaḥšásta, Tiberian: ʾArtaḥšasetāʾ; Ancient Greek: Ἀρταξέρξης, romanized: Artaxérxēs) was the sixth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, from 465-424 BC. He was the third son of Xerxes I.
Ochus (Greek: Ôchos, Babylonian: Ú-ma-kuš), better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III (Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) was King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire from 358 to 338 BC. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II (r. 404 – 358 BC) and his mother was Stateira.
Artaxerxes II Mnemon (Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the King of Kings (Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis.
Arses (Old Persian: Aršaka), also known by his regnal name of Artaxerxes IV (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā), was the twelfth Achaemenid king of Persia from 338 BC to 336 BC. He is known as Arses in Greek sources and that seems to have been his real name, but the Xanthus trilingue and potsherds from Samaria report that he took the royal name of Artaxerxes IV, following his father and grandfather.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus, was an ancient Greco-Scythian state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: داریوش Dāryuš; Hebrew: דָּרְיָוֶשׁ, Modern: Darəyaveš, Tiberian: Dāryāwéš; c. 550–486 BCE), commonly known as Darius the Great, was the third Persian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE. He ruled the empire at its peak, when it included much of West Asia, parts of the Caucasus, parts of the Balkans (Thrace-Macedonia, and Paeonia), most of the Black Sea coastal regions, Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley in the far east and portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt (Mudrâya), eastern Libya, and coastal Sudan.
Xerxes I (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 Xšayaṛša (Khshāyarsha) "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης Xérxēs; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. Like his father and predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, from 336 BC to 330 BC. Artashata adopted Darius as a dynastic name.
Xerxes II (/ˈzɜːrksiːz/; Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 Xšayaṛša (Khshāyarsha (help·info)) "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης Xérxēs [ksérksɛːs]; 519–424 BC), was a Persian king and the son and successor of Artaxerxes I. After a reign of forty-five days, he was assassinated in 424 BC by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by Darius II.
Phintias was an ancient Greek tyrant of the Sicilian town of Acragas (c. 288 - 279 BC). He appears to have established his power over that city during the period of confusion which followed the death of Agathocles (289 BC), about the same time that Hicetas obtained the chief command at Syracuse.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east. He was a member of the Artaxiad Royal House. Under his reign, the Armenian kingdom expanded beyond its traditional boundaries, allowing Tigranes to claim the title Great King, and involving Armenia in many battles against opponents such as the Parthian and Seleucid empires, and the Roman Republic.
Artavasdes II was a King of the Kingdom of Armenia from 55 BC until 34 BC and a member of the Artaxiad Dynasty. He was a son of king Tigranes the Great of Armenia and Cleopatra of Pontus, his maternal grandfather was king Mithridates VI of Pontus.
Tigranes I of Armenia reigned as King of Armenia from 115 BC to 95 BC. Artavasdes I did not leave any heir; his brother Tigranes ascended to the throne of the Artaxiads. According to Appian, Tigranes II was not the son of Artavasdes, but of Tigranes I.
Artavasdes IV of Armenia; also known as Artavasdes II of Atropatene; Artavasdes II of Media Atropatene and Armenia Major; Artavasdes II and Artavasdes (20 BC – 6 AD) was an Iranian prince who served as King of Media Atropatene. During his reign of Media Atropatene, Artavasdes also served as a Roman Client King of Armenia Major.
Amynander (Greek: Ἀμύνανδρος, Amynandros, in Polybios also Amynas) was king of the Athamanes in south Epirus, following his predecessor Theodorus of Athamania. He was a brother-in-law of the Illyrian king Scerdilaidas and first appears in history as a mediator between Philip V of Macedon and the Aetolians.
Lachares was one of the most influential leaders in Athens in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries B.C., after democracy had been re-established by Demetrius Poliorcetes. He was afterwards secretly gained over by Cassander, who incited him to aim at the acquisition of the tyranny, hoping to be able through his means to rule Athens.
Erato also known as Queen Erato (flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century, died sometime after 12) was a princess of the Kingdom of Armenia and member of the Artaxiad Dynasty. She served as Roman client queen of Armenia from 10 BC until 2 BC with her brother-husband King Tigranes IV. After living in political exile for a number of years, she co-ruled as Roman client queen of Armenia from 6 until 12 with the Herodian Prince Tigranes V, her distant paternal relative. As a queen of Armenia, she may be viewed as one of the last hereditary rulers of her nation.
Tigranes VI, also known as Tigran VI or by his Roman name Gaius Julius Tigranes (Greek: Γαίος Ιούλιος Τιγράνης, Armenian:Տիգրան Զ, before 25 – after 68) was a Herodian Prince and served as a Roman Client King of Armenia in the 1st century.
Antialcidas Nikephoros was an Indo-Greek king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, who reigned from his capital at Taxila. Bopearachchi has suggested that he ruled from ca. 115 to 95 BCE in the western parts of the Indo-Greek realms, whereas R. C. Senior places him around 130 to 120 BCE and also in eastern Punjab (which seems better supported by coin findings).